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Culinary Dictionary
Cooking Glossary - Food Industry Terminology

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A baker's dozen: The "baker's dozen" refers to providing 13 baked items for the price of 12 and originated as a way to avoid shortchanging the customer. Bakers who shorted (cheated) customers could be punished severely-such as losing a hand to an axe! This allowed that one of the 13 could be lost, eaten, burnt, or ruined in some way, leaving the baker with the original legal dozen. The practice can be seen in the Baker Guild codes of the Worshipful Company of Bakers in London, 12th century.

a la : French for the style of, such as "a la Francaise" meaning "in the style of the French"

a la Bourgeoise : French for in "the style of the family"

a la Broche : French for cooked on a skewer over a flame

a la Carte : A list of food items each priced and served separately

a la carte: [French] refers to a list of food items each priced separately.

a la creme: [French] served with cream or a cream-based sauce.

a la Creole: [French] dishes prepared with tomatoes, green peppers and onions as important ingredients.

a la Florentine : Literally French for "in the style of Florence". In Italian, "alla Florentine". It refers to dishes served with spinach and topped with a mornay sauce.

a la Greque (a la Grecqua): [French] means "in the Greek manner." Term describes vegetables cooked in a mixture of oil and vinegar, or lemon juice, with seasoning added. Serve cold or chilled.

a la King : An American dish of diced foods, usually chicken or turkey, in a cream sauce with pimientos, onions, mushrooms, green peppers and sometimes sherry.

a la minute: [French] cooked to order.

a la Mode : Meaning "In the fashion"

a la mode: [French] served with or in the fashion of. Desserts served a la mode are served with ice cream; meats served a la mode are braised with vegetables and served with gravy.

a la Provencal : French for dishes prepared with garlic and olive oil.

a la: [French] in the manner or style of.

a l'Anglaise: [French] In the English style; boiled and served without a sauce.

Ababai Fruit : Fresh off the tree, ababai has a thin skin and looks like a small papaya with a flesh that is firm and uniform in texture. It is one of the few fruits that will not dissolve when cooked. It can be sauteed with vegetables, broiled or grilled. Ababai is never eaten fresh due to its high enzyme content. After processing, the pale yellow color turns a brilliant gold.

Abaisee : 1. A French term for a puff pastry sheets that have been rolled very thin.
2. thin slice of sponge cake used in a dessert.

Abaisse: A piece of dough rolled to a required size.

Abalone : A mollusk related to the sea snail, eaten fresh, dried and salted, or cooked in dishes similar to clam chowder. Known as "awabi" in Japanese cuisine, as "loco" in South American, as "ormer" in the English Channel, as "muttonfish" in Australia and as "paua" in New Zealand. Its iridescent shell is a source of mother of pearl.

Abalone: This gastropod can be found along the coasts of California, Mexico and Japan. The edible portion is the "adductor muscle" (false foot) by which it clings to rocks. Its iridescent ear:shaped shell is the source of mother:of:pearl.

Abalone: A mollusk, related to a sea snail, similar in flavor to a clam. It may be cooked by various methods and is best suited to very long or very short cooking times. Also called "Awabi" in Japanese cuisine and "Loco" in South American cuisine. It has been over-harvested and is very expensive when available. A small amount is being commercial raised.

Abattis: Winglets, giblets of poultry.

Abc: Activity based costing.

Aberdeen Sausage : A long Scottish beef sausage that is wrapped in a cloth, boiled, and then coated in bread crumbs.

Abm: Activity based management.

Aboyeur: [French] Expediter or announcer; a station in the brigade system. The aboyeur accepts orders from the dining room, relays them to the appropriate stations of the kitchen, and checks each plate before it leaves the kitchen.

Absolute-minimum pricing: The lowest possible price at which goods can be sold.

Absorbent paper: Paper towel.

Absorption: A characteristic of flour to take up and retain (hold) water or liquids. It is determined by measuring the amount of liquid needed to make dough of the desired consistency. It is expressed in a percentage (lbs./liters of water needed per pound/kilo of flour).

Accolade : En accolade means serving two like kinds of food leaning against each other. The term usually applies to poultry and game hens.

Account planning: A manufacturer's business review for retail accounts that lays out the timing and scope for product promotions, deals and allowances for a coming year.

Account receivable: Bills or invoices for goods or services; money owed by a customer.

Account: A manufacturers' term for a retailer or wholesaler that buys and resells the manufacturer's products.

Accounting and controls: Money management methods and procedures, which include inventories; budgeting; strategic and long-range planning; expense controls; taxes, including depreciation guidelines; direct product profit, among others. See specific commodities, such as produce.

Accounts payable: A retailer's or wholesaler's unpaid bills and invoices; the money owed to vendors and suppliers.

Accrued inventory: An estimate of current inventory that is determined by subtracting the costs of the current inventory and goods sold from the cost of the original inventory.

Aceite de oliva: [Spanish] olive oil.

Aceituna: [Spanish] olive.

Acerola : A small, deep-red, cherrylike fruit that grows on the acerola tree found primarily in and around the West Indies and Brazil. The fruit has a sweet flavor and one of the highest concentrations of vitamin C. It is used in desserts and preserves. It's also known as the Barbados cherry, Puerto Rican cherry and West Indies cherry.

Acetic Acid : Wine or cider that fermented beyond the stage of alcohol. In a diluted form acetic acid is vinegar. Acetic acid is also used in preserving fruits to keep them from discoloring.

Ach: Automated clearinghouse.

Achar : A strong spiced pickle relish served in Indian cuisine. It usually consists of chopped fruits and vegetables in a spicy sauce.

Achar : Pickling relish used in Indian and West Indies dishes, made of palm cabbage, bamboo shoots, spices, and other fruits and vegetables.

Achar: Very spicy relish from the cuisine of India and the Caribbean Islands. Achar may be made from fruits and vegetables.

Achiote paste: Ground seeds of the large and shady annatto tree; earthy flavor with a hint of iodine; used as a coloring agent and commercially to color Cheddar cheeses and butter; used in slow-cooked sauces and stews.

Achiote: Dried brick red seeds of the annatto tree, used as a seasoning and to give food a deep red color. Achiote is used to add a yellowish-orange color to dishes, especially arroz con pollo. Substitute a little turmeric, paprika or saffron in a recipe if achiote is unavailable.

Acid Rinse : Discoloration of peeled fruits and vegetables are prevented from browning when exposed to air by a bath of acidulated water.

Acid salt: A dry, granular white crystal that dissolves in water before acting as an acid. The acid salt reacts chemically with the bicarbonate to release CO2 gas. The type of acid salt used in the baking powder can determine the rate of gas release. The most common acid salts in home baking powders are Sodium aluminum sulfate NaAl(SO4)2 and Monocalcium phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2.

Acid: A substance having a sour or sharp flavor. Most foods are somewhat acidic. Foods generally referred to as acidic include citrus juice, vinegar, and wine. Degree of acidity is measured on the pH scale; acids have a pH of less than 7.

Acidic: pH of less than 7. Acid ingredients react with bases to form salts and water. They have a sour taste. A chemical compound that yields hydrogen ions when in solution.

Acidulate : To give a dish or liquid a slightly acidic, tart or piquant taste by adding some lemon juice, vinegar, or unripened fruit juice.

Acidulated Water : Cold water with vinegar, lemon or lime juice added

Acidulated water: A mixture of water and a small amount of vinegar or lemon juice, used to purify or prevent discoloration in meats and vegetables.

Acitron: [Spanish] candied biznaga cactus; made by simmering in a sugar syrup.

Ackee: A Jamaican fruit with spongy white or yellow flesh. Available fresh or canned. Also called akee.

Aclarada: [Spanish] clarified.

Acorn Squash : A small to medium-sized acorn-shaped winter squash with an orange and green or orange, yellow and creamy white ridged shell with pale orange flesh, and a slightly sweet, nutty flavor.

Acorn: Nut of the oak tree; an Apache cooking staple.

Activity based costing (abc): An accounting method that measures business profits and costs by taking into account both overhead and the cost of wasteful or inefficient practices two items that are not considered in conventional accounting methods.

Activity based management (abm): A management strategy used in Efficient Consumer Response (ECR), based on principles of activity based costing. See activity based costing; Efficient Consumer Response.

Actual ship date (asd): The actual date that products leave a manufacturer's plant or distribution center.

Acv: All commodity volume.

Ad actuals: A calculation of exact profits or losses resulting from an advertisement.

Ad group: A retailers' consortium that advertises together and shares costs.

Ad projections: Estimates of sales and profits on all advertised items.

Ad slick: Camera-ready print ads, such as illustrations, company logos and copy, provided by retailers and manufacturers for newspaper advertisements. Also known as slicks.

Adabado : A sour paste used to marinate fajitas (Mexican skirt steak) before grilling, made with vinegar, chiles, and herbs.

Ade : A fruit drink made by combining water with sugar, dissolving the sugar, then adding a citrus juice and ice.

Aderezo: [Spanish] dressing.

Adi: A Nielsen/Arbitron radio or television term that draws the boundaries of a station's area of dominant influence.

Adjust Seasoning : To taste the dish before serving to determine the need for salt, herbs, or other seasonings.

Adobado (adavada): [Spanish] in Texas, a sour marinade paste made with chiles, herbs and vinegar; in New Mexico and El Paso, a marinade for pork made with red New Mexican chiles, Mexican oregano and garlic.

Adobo : 1. A Philippine national dish of braised pork, chicken, or fish. 2. Also, a seasoned Mexican sauce made with vinegar and chilies like the sauce in which Chipolte peppers usually are sold.

Adobo: [Spanish] piquant sauce or paste used as a seasoning for meats, seafood or poultry. It includes chiles, tomato, vinegar and spices; adobo may also be used for pickling.

Adulterated food: Food that has been contaminated to the point that it is considered unfit for human consumption.

Aduski beans: A small (one-quarter inch long or so), oval, brown or reddish-brown dried bean. This is an Asian bean usually made into flour, sprouted or used in desserts. Its slightly sweet flavor makes it an odd choice for a dinner bean.

Advance order: A retailer's order placed with a supplier for seasonal and new items before they are available.

Advanced-shipping notice (asn): A communication using electronic data interchange (EDI) that manufacturers use to notify wholesalers or retailers about future shipments.

Advertised brand: See national brand.

Advertising allowance: Money that a manufacturer pays a wholesaler or retailer to advertise a product, brand or line. See cooperative advertising; cooperative merchandising allowance.

Advertising: A paid, public notice that food retailers place in newspapers, on television and/or radio, on the Internet, in circulars, or on in-store signs and displays to promote products and prices.

Advisory board: A group of consumers or retailers that provides ideas about items to stock and merchandise. New products are tested by consumers.

Adzuki Bean : A small reddish-brown bush bean (they grow on bushes rather than vines) cultivated in China and Japan. Extremely versatile, adzukis can be eaten fresh or dried, or ground into flour and used to make cakes or other confections

Aemono : A Japanese salad served with dressing, or the dressing itself.

Aerate : To sift ingredients through a fine mesh screen to break up lumps and to add air to make them lighter.

Aerate, aeration: To whip, sift or beat air between particles, as with flour, confectioners sugar, or sugar and butter.

Aerobic Bacteria: Bacteria that requires the presence of oxygen to function.

Affiliated retailer or affiliated store: An independent retailer that purchases products and services from a cooperative wholesaler.

Affiliated wholesale grocer: A wholesaler that provides goods and services to retailers that belong to a cooperative association.

Aftertaste : Term used to describe the impression that remains after food or beverages are swallowed. Wine is evaluated on the character and length of aftertaste.

Agar: An extract of seaweed used as a thickening agent. The Japanese use it in soups.

Agar: A vegetable gelatin made from various kinds of algae or seaweed. The algae are collected, bleached and dried. Then the gelatin substance is extracted with water and made into flakes, granules, powder or strips which are brittle when dry. Primarily used as a thickening agent.

Agaricus Mushrooms : Plump, dome-shaped mushrooms, ranging in size from small (button mushrooms) to jumbo. These common mushrooms have a mild, earthy flavor and are available year-round in bulk and 8

Agave : A Mexican plant with large, fleshy leaves. Fermented agave sap is used to make tequila, pulque, and mescal.

Agave: Agave americana; botanical name for the maguey cactus from which tequila, mescal and pulque are made.

Agent: A manufacturer's employee or a network of brokers that directly sells products to retailers and/or wholesalers. See master broker; direct sale.

Aging : A term used to describe the holding of meats at a temperature of 34 to 36 degrees F. for a period of time to tenderize.

Agneau : French term for lamb.

Agnello: [Italian] lamb.

Agnolini : Small stuffed pasta similar to ravioli.

Agnolotti : Round or crescent-shaped stuffed pasta, usually filled with meat.

Agnolotti: [Italian] small half-moon shaped ravioli.

Agriculture: The science and art of growing crops and raising livestock; farming.

Agrio: [Spanish] sour.

Agua: [Spanish] water.

Aguacates: Avocados; alligator pear; name comes from the Aztec word "ahuacacuahatle," meaning "testicle tree" (avocados grow in pairs).

Aguado: [Spanish] watery.

Aguas frescas: [Spanish] fresh fruit drinks.

Agujas: [Spanish] in northern Mexico, name given to ribs of beef.

Ahi: These tuna reach about 300 pounds in weight. They feature a pale pink flesh that is relatively mild. Also called "Yellowfin tuna."

Ahw: Average hourly wage.

Aiguillette: Long, thin slices of poultry breast or some other meats or fish.

Ail : French term for garlic.

Ail: [French] garlic.

Aioli : Sauce of southern France made with garlic, olive oil, egg yolks, and other seasonings. Aioli is used with potatoes, poached fish, snails, salt cod, and added to bouillabaisse. It is similar in consistency to mayonnaise.

Aioli: [French] a cold egg and oil emulsion with olive oil and garlic. Many variations of this sauce are made. Basically is is a garlic mayonnaise.

Aioli : A strong garlic mayonnaise from the Provence region of southern France. It is a favorite addition for fish, meats and vegetables.

Air conditioning and heating: Systems used to cool and heat stores, warehouses and other facilities. They are often linked to refrigerators and lighting as part of energy management systems. See equipment and supplies; store construction; maintenance; energy management; and ecology.

Air curtain: A buffer zone of air between rooms of different temperatures in a warehouse or between the inside and outside of a store.

Air: Average item retail.

Airtights: Canned goods; term common used in the old West.

Aisle captain or aisle clerk: A supervisor or person responsible for full shelves, merchandising and ordering.

Aisle closer: A mobile, merchandising unit used to close a checkout stand so that customers move to another checkout stand.

Ajo : Spanish term for garlic.

Ajo dulce: sweet chile pepper.

Ajo: [Spanish] garlic.

Ajonjol: [Spanish] sesame.

Akee, Ackee : Tropical fruit, native to Africa, commonly eaten in Jamaica with salt cod. The cherry-size fruit, slightly oval in shape, has a flavor similar to grapes, and looks like scrambled eggs when cooked. Certain parts of the fruit are toxic when underripe so it is important to identify the stage of maturity before using this fresh fruit, but canned akee is safe. Also known as genipa, genip, ginup, honeyberry, limoncillo, Spanish lime and mamoncillo.

Aku: This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light:colored meat similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "Katsuo."

Akule: This marine fish, found near Hawaii, is normally served salted and dried. Also known as "Bigeye Scad."

Al Carbon : In Italian and Mexican cooking, foods grilled over charcoal.

Al Carbon: [Spanish] a dish relating to charcoal grilled or containing meat.

Al dente Meaning to cook until it gives a slight resistance when bitten-not overcooked or undercooked; meaning "tooth" in Italian

Al Dente : Italian meaning "to the tooth". Used to describe a food, usually pasta, that is cooked only until it gives a slight resistance when one bites into it; the food is neither soft nor overdone.

Al dente: This Italian expression meaning "by the tooth" describes pasta cooked a shorter time so that it has just slight resistance when chewed. Fresh pasta is too soft already to be cooked al dente. The term also describes cooking vegetables until crisp by steaming, boiling, or stir:frying. Example

Al Dente: [Italian] a term, meaning "to the bite." Literally "to the tooth," used to describe the correct degree of doneness for pasta and vegetables. This is not exactly a procedure, but a sensory evaluation for deciding when the food is finished cooking. Pasta should retain a slight resistance when biting into it, but should not have a hard center.

Al Forno : Italian term for food baked in an oven.

Al Forno: [Italian] a dish baked in the oven.

Al Fresco : Italian term for an outdoor meal or social event held outside.

Al Pastor : Italian term for food cooked over an open fire on a long spit.

Al Pastor: A term used in Spanish and Italian referring to a dish cooked in the style of shepherd cooking, usually vertically over a grill or spit.

Alambre : Spanish or Mexican shish kebab.

Alambres: [Spanish] shish kebabs.

Alaskan cod: This saltwater fish, which is not a true cod, has a soft textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also called "Sablefish."

Albacore : Albacore is a high-fat tuna with light flesh and a mild flavor. Found in temperate marine waters throughout the world, it weighs between 10 and 60 pounds. It is the only tuna that can be called white, and the most expensive canned tuna.

Albacore: A highly prized, mild:flavored tuna that weighs between 10 and 60 pounds. This high:fat fish is the only tuna that can honestly be called "white." It is the most expensive variety of canned tuna.

Albahaca: [Spanish] basil.

Albert: a French hot horseradish sauce.

Albimar: [Spanish] candied.

Albondigas: [Spanish] meatballs; made of chicken, shrimp, beef or pork; usually used as a garnish for broth soups or served in tomato sauce as an appetizer or light entree.

Albondiguitas: [Spanish] tiny meatballs.

Albumen : 1. Egg white. 2. An important type of protein found in egg whites, rare beef, milk and some vegetables. It is a vital component of human blood serum.

Albumen: the protein of egg whites.

Alcachofas: [Spanish] artichokes.

Alcaparras: [Spanish] capers.

Alcapurrias: [Spanish] croquettes.

Alewife: One of the most popular members of the herring family, the alewife is anadromous (it spawns in fresh water). This fish provides high:fat flesh with a fine, soft, texture.

Alfalfa Sprouts : A popular choice for salads and sandwiches, alfalfa sprouts are best eaten raw. They also may be stir-fried or sauteed, but should only be cooked for 30 seconds or less to avoid wilting. Alfalfa sprouts are widely available in supermarkets. Look for crisp sprouts with buds attached, and avoid musty-smelling or slimy-looking sprouts. Once purchased, they should be refrigerated in the ventilated plastic container in which they are usually sold and kept for no more than two days.

Alfredo: A pasta sauce originally consisting of butter, cream, and the finest parmesan cheese available. Modern versions add garlic, peas, and less expensive parmesan. All of these will make fine sauces, but nothing can compare to the original version.

Algorienne: [French] a garnish of small tomatoes and sweet potato croquettes.

Aliolio: [Spanish] garlic mayonnaise.

Alkaline: pH greater than 7. Alkalis such as baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) neutralize acids and react with acidic ingredients as a leavener. Alkalis have an excess of hydroxyl ions when in solution.

All commodity volume (acv): A retailer's total volume of sales, expressed as a percentage (or share) of the ACV; therefore a 30 percent ACV is a 30 percent share of the total market for that commodity.

Alla: [Italian] in the style of

Allemande: A rich cream sauce made of Veloute (usually veal), a liaison of egg yolks and lemon juice.

Alligator: A large aquatic reptile that grows up to 19 feet in length. The meat is generally only available in its native regions::Louisiana and the Gulf States. Alligators feature meat ranging from white to dark::mild to strongly flavored.

Allioli: [Italian] garlic mayonnaise.

Allocate: A process that determines how much shelf space a product gets, using product movement and profitability as a guide.

Allocation: A limit set by a manufacturer on the total amount of a retailer's or wholesaler's product order during a promotional period. See forced distribution.

Allowance: A manufacturer's deal for wholesalers or retailers to advertise and/or merchandise specific product(s). Also known as a trade deal, promotion or a discount.

All-purpose Flour : White wheat flour blended to contain a moderate amount of protein and used for a wide range of general baking and cooking.

All-purpose flour: Wheat flour milled from hard wheat or a blend of soft and hard wheat. Used in homes for some yeast breads, quick breads, cakes, cookies, pastries and noodles. All-purpose flour may be bleached or unbleached. Both may be enriched with four vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, and thiamin) and iron. All-purpose flour may be used in a wide variety of home baked goods, such as cookies, quick breads, and some yeast breads.

Allspice : A member of the pimento family and native to tropical regions. It's brown berries have a flavor similar to a mixture of cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, ginger and pepper. Allspice is also known as Jamaican pepper.

Allspice: A single spice, rather than a combination of all spices, which is reminiscent of a nutmeg, cloves, juniper berries, pepper, and cinnamon mixture. Allspice is made from the fruit of an evergreen tree found in the Western Hemisphere.

Allumettes : The French word for "match," also refers to potatoes that have been cut into thin "matchsticks"

Allumettes: [French] Vegetable strips, matchstick-size in length and width.

Almandine: [French] made or garnished with almonds. An alternate spelling is Amandine.

Almejas: [Spanish] clams.

Almobar: [Spanish] light syrup.

Almond Extract : A concentrated flavoring made from alcohol and bitter-almond oil, primarily used baking.

Almond extract: An intense flavoring made from bitter-almond oil, usually combined with ethyl alcohol. Keeps indefinitely if stored in a cool dry place.

Almond Paste : Blanched, ground almonds combined with sugar and glycerin; used in a variety of confections including amaretti cookies; similar to marzipan but is less delicate and not as sweet. Ground kernels of peaches or apricots are often added to enhance the almonds. Almond paste is available in most supermarkets. After opening, wrap tightly and refrigerate. Heating for two or three seconds in a microwave oven can soften hardened almond paste. It should be firm but pliable before using.

Almond Paste: a blend of ground, blanched almonds cooked with sugar to make a creamy, firm paste. It is used as an ingredient in cakes, cookies, ice cream, pastries tarts. (It is the secret ingredient in rainbow and pignoli cookies, macaroons, kranskage, Danish pastries and Swedish mazarins.) And almond paste can be used to make marzipan, a sweet almond confection. [see below] Quality almond paste usually contains more than 50% almonds and the balance is sugar.

Almonds : Commonly grown in the Mediterranean, California and other warm climates, almond varieties are classified as either sweet or bitter. Sweet varieties are used as edible nuts. They are highly nutritious and can be used raw, roasted or toasted.

Almuerzo: [Spanish] brunch.

Altitude: (above 3,500 ft.), adjustments may be needed in baking, cooking time, temperature and recipes. For example, Water boils at 2120 F below 2,000 ft. and more quickly from 3,000 to 10,000 ft. (2080-1940 F.). Food requiring boiling (pasta, eggs, pudding/pie filling) will take longer to cook. Leavening gases in breads and cakes expand more at high altitudes. Yeast breads will rise faster-use slightly cooler liquids to slow fermentation; punch down twice. Flour will be dryer and more absorbent at altitudes-use slightly less. Cakes may need slightly less baking powder (1/8 to ? tsp), less sugar (1 to 3 tbsp. per cup) and a little more liquid (1 to 4 tbsp. per cup). Increase baking temperature slightly, 15 to 250 F. Egg whites- beat only to soft peaks, not stiff.

Alubias: [Spanish] white navy beans.

Aluminum : Cookware made from this tough, strong, light metal holds heat well, but has a tendency to react with acids and can give foods an off-taste. For this reason never use aluminum for a recipe which calls for a non-reactive pan.

Aluminum Foil : A thin pliable sheet of aluminum which can be folded, molded and sealed. It conducts heat well and can withstand extremely high and low temperatures.

Amandine : This French term refers to dishes garnished with almonds. Often spelled Almondine.

Amaranth : A pseudo-cereal grain cultivated for more than 5,500 years by the Aztec and related cultures. Virtually unknown for the last 500 years, it is currently grown commercially in the United States by a few dozen farmers. This grain exceeds all common grains as a source of protein and, as such, is expected to experience wider availability. It may be cooked in liquid or popped. The leaves have a slightly sweet flavor and are often used like spinach. Amaranth is also called Chinese Spinach, een choy and callaloo.

Amaranth flour: Milled from amaranth seeds, it combines well with other flours for smooth-textured quick breads. It has an assertive flavor and especially complements savory breads or pastries. Its lack of gluten means it must be combined with wheat flour in yeast breads.

Amaretti : Italian almond cookies reminiscent of the macaroon.

Amaretti: Italian almond cookies much like a macaroon.

Amaretto : An almond-flavored liqueur, often made with kernels of apricot pits.

Amaretto: A liqueur with a distinct flavor of almonds, though it's often made with apricot pit kernels. The original liqueur, Amaretto di Saronno, is from Saronno, Italy. Many distilleries produce their own amaretto. Usually served straight, on the rocks or used as a mixer. Used often in baked goods.

Amarillo: [Spanish] yellow; ripe plantain.

Amberjack: A lean, mild fish found along the South Atlantic coast. Difficult to find in markets; usually sold whole.

Ambient: A recommended air temperature used to transport or to store perishable foods.

Ambrosia : A dessert of chilled fruits combined with coconut. Bananas and citrus fruit like oranges are common ingredients. Ambrosia may also be served as a salad.

Amchoor: Sour, unripe mangoes that are dried and sold in slices and powder. Their primary use is in Indian cooking, giving foods a sweet and sour flavor.

Amendra: [Spanish] almond.

AmEricaine: A French sauce or garnish containing lobster meat.

American buffalo: American Buffalos are presently raised on game farms. The meat is very tender and tastes quite a bit like lean beef. It has no pronounced gamey flavor. Also called "bison."

American Cheese, Processed : any of the group of US cheeses made with emulsifiers to increase smoothness and pasteurized milk to increase storage life; 51% of the final weight must be cheese.

American frozen food institute (affi): 1764 Old Meadow Lane, Suite 350 McLean, VA 22102 (703) 821-0770

American institute of food distribution inc. (aifd): 28-12 Broadway Fair Lawn, NJ 07410 (201) 791-5570

American meat institute (ami): 1700 N. Moore St., Suite 1600 Arlington, VA 22209 (703) 841-2400 or P.O. Box 3556 Washington, DC 20007

American national standards institute (ansi): A nongovernmental association that formulates voluntary, national standards, such as electronic data interchange.

American wholesale marketers association (awma): (Formerly, National Candy Wholesalers Association-NCWA) The National Candy Wholesalers Association and the National Association of Tobacco Distributors joined to form a single trade organization. 1128 16th St., N.W. Washington, DC 20036 (202) 463-2124

Ami: American Meat Institute.

Amori : Hollow, rigid pasta spirals.

Anaheim chiles: New Mexican chiles; very few, if any, Anaheim chiles are grown near Anaheim, California now; mildly hot peppers; slim, ranging between five and eight inches long and sometimes twisted in appearance; not normally stuffed because their flesh is thin; dried and tied in strings (ristras), or ground and blended in commercial chili powder mixtures; may be purchased in cans labeled as mild green chiles.

Anaheim Chilies : Mild, long green chilies named for the area near Los Angeles where they were once cultivated. They are available canned (whole or chopped) and fresh.

Anaheim pepper, fresh: Slightly hot light-green pepper. Found in most supermarkets. There is also a Red Anaheim pepper. These are usually fond dried. Do not substitute the dried for the fresh.

Anasazi beans: Named after the ancient ones, ancestors of the southwestern Native Americans, this is one of the oldest varieties; developed by forebears of the Pueblo Indians in what is now New Mexico, these beans have a variegated cranberry and white coloring that adds color to bean dishes and salads.

Ancho chile: Wide, broad; ripened, dried poblano chile; wrinkled and dark reddish brown color, measuring about 5 inches long and 3 inches across the shoulders; most often used in sauces and stews; sometimes ground into a powder for use in chilis and spice rubs; pasilla chiles may be substituted. This relatively mild dried chile pepper is a deep reddish brown in color. In its fresh green state, it is known as a poblano.

Ancho Chilies : Dried poblano chilies that come in color ranging from dark red to almost black. They are moderately hot with a smoky flavor.

Anchoiade: A dip made of pureed anchovies mixed with garlic and olive oil. Raw vegetables and bread are served with this dip.

Anchovies: Small, silvery fish that are usually cured with salt. Many are then tightly packed with oil in flat two-ounce tins, but salt-cured anchovies are also available. These should be rinsed, and may need to be filleted before using.

Anchovy : A small fish used primarily as flavoring. It has a very salty and has a distinctive taste.

Anchovy fillets, sweet pickled: Available in Scandinavian markets.

Anchovy: There are many species of small, silvery fish known as "anchovies," but the true anchovy comes from the Mediterranean and southern European coastlines. Often filleted, salt:cured, and canned in oil. Used sparingly to flavor foods.

Andouille Sausage : A spicy sausage made from pork chitterlings and tripe. Andouille is traditionally used in Cajun dishes, like jambalaya and gumbo.

Andouille: A hard, smoked, highly-seasoned pork, Creole-Acadian sausage originating in communities along the lower Mississippi River. Is used regularly in Creole cooking, but it is popular in French cooking as well. The Creole version of this sausage is much spicier than those made in France.

Anejo: [Spanish] aged; refers either to certain types of aged liquor or to a cheese which is like a cross between Parmesan and feta.

Angel Food Cake : A light, airy cake made without egg yolks or other fats; its structure is based on the air whipped into the egg whites; traditionally baked in a tube pan.

Angel Hair Pasta : A thin, delicate pasta. These strands are best if used with thinner, delicate sauces. Other uses: break in half and put in soup; use in salads or stir-fry meals.

Angelica: Licorice flavored stalks from the Angelica plants are candied and used primarily in pastry making. Angelica is also used to flavor liqueurs.

Anglaise: [French] The manner of simple English-style cooking, such as boiling or steaming.

Angler fish: This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as "poor man's lobster." Also called "Monkfish," and "goose:fish."

Anis: [Spanish] Anise; small, elongated seed from the anise plant that tastes like licorice; the anise plant is a member of the carrot family.

Anise : An herb of the parsley family native to the eastern Mediterranean region. It has bright green leaves with a mild licorice flavor.

Anise: A spice which produces a licorice-like flavor. Purchased ground to a powder or in seed form. Utilized in flavoring cookies, cakes and liqueurs. See Aniseed.

Aniseed: Crescent-shaped seeds which are a member of the parsley family; used in both sweet and savory dishes; impart a strong licorice flavor and a lightly sweet tone to food.

Anisette : A sweet French liqueur made with aniseed. It is produced as a flavor blend of aniseeds and aromatic herbs.

Anna potatoes: The name for a potato pancake made of thin slices of potato which are assembled in concentric circles and cooked with liberal amounts of butter. The cake is then baked until crisp and golden brown.

Annatto Extract : A dye made from the pulp surrounding the seeds of the South American annatto tree; mainly used to color cheese, particularly cheddar. See also Annatto Seed.

Annatto Seeds: Small rust-colored seeds used to make Annatto oil. Also called achiote seed. The oil is then used as a yellow food coloring and a spice in cooking from Latin America and Southeast Asia.. Can be found in Hispanic markets.

Annatto seeds: Usually made into achiote paste; earthy flavor with a hint of iodine; prized as a coloring agent and is used commercially to color Cheddar cheeses and butter; used in slow-cooked sauces and stews; very slow to dissolve and needs to be ground.

Anolini : A semicircular, stuffed pasta.

Ansi accredited standards committee x12 (ansi asc x12): A committee responsible for writing generic electronic data interchange (EDI) standards.

Ansi: American National Standards Institute.

Antelope: A large, deer:like animal that inhabits Asia, Africa, and Europe. Their meat is called "venison" and may be cooked by roasting. Plenty of fat is recommended to prevent the meat from becoming too dry.

Anticuchos: [Spanish] marinated and grilled beef hearts.

Antiguo: [Spanish] old; ancient.

Antioxidants : 1. Natural or synthetic substances that prevent or delay the process of oxidation. Some food additives are antioxidants that act as preservatives by retarding deteriorization, rancidity or discoloration caused by oxidation. 2. Compounds found in various foods that reduce premature aging or degenerative disease.

Antipasto : An Italian dish of cold meats, hors d'oeuvres and vegetables, which is commonly served before the pasta.

Antipasto: [Italian] cold appetizer assortment. Antipasto is the Italian word for snacks served before a meal. These are dishes to pique one's appetite, not quench it. This may consist of one or more dishes of all types of food. Common elements of an antipasto table are cured meats and salamis, olives, marinated vegetables and cheese.

Antojito: [Spanish] snack or an appetizer, it means little whim.

Antojitos mexicanos: [Spanish] snacks; corn- or tortilla-based Mexican foods, including enchiladas, tacos and tamales.

Aperitif : An alcoholic drink taken before a meal that is supposed to sharpen the appetite. It is usually strong and very small.

Aperitif: A drink taken before a meal to stimulate the appetite.

Apfel: [German] apple.

Apio: [Spanish] edible root of a tropical plant.

Apollo: A software program used to analyze shelf space and product movement in order to develop planograms for specific categories. See planogram; space management.

Appetizer : A small serving of food or beverage served before first course of a meal.

Apple : A pome fruit with generally firm flesh, which can range in flavor from sweet to tart. They have a thin peel or skin ranging in color from yellow to green to red. Apples can be eaten raw, cooked, pureed or used for juice.

Apple Brown Betty : A dessert with layers of apples and buttered crumbs or oats and spices.

Apple Corer : A small kitchen tool with a sharp metal gouge attached to a handle; used to remove the core of an apple.

Apple Slicer : A tool with a round frame sectioned off by either wire or metal blades. The tool is pressed over an apple, dividing the fruit into even sections while also removing its core.

Applejack : 1. An American brandy made from apple cider that must spend a minimum of two years in wooden casks before being bottled; very potent, ranging in strength from 80 to 100 proof. 2. Apple syrup or a type of apple turnover.

Applejack: A brandy made from apple cider which, in the United States, must spend a minimum of two years in wooden casks before being bottled. It ranges from 80 to 100 proof in strength.

Applemint : A member of the mint family, applemint sprigs have a slightly fruity flavor and can be added to fruit salads, cream or cottage cheeses, or used to garnish drinks.

Application identifier: A numeric prefix to a UCC/EAN-128 code that defines the encoded data to follow. Generally used as secondary codes to provide information not included in standard U.P.C. numbering, such as product dates, weights and lot/batch numbers. May also identify a UCC serial shipping container.

Apricot : A small fruit with a thin, velvety, pale yellow to deep orange skin, a meaty golden cream to bright orange flesh and an almond-shaped pit.

arbol chiles: Similar to cayennes.

Arborio Rice : A short-grain rice with a hard core, white color and mild flavor. It has a creamy consistency when cooked and is used for risotto.

Arborio rice: A short grain white rice from Northern Italy. The length of the grain is often less than two times its width. Used often in risotto because it absorbs flavor as it cooks, yet remains somewhat firm.

Arctic bonito: This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light:colored meat similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "katsuo" and the Hawaiians call it "aku."

Area of dominant influence (adi): An Arbitron or Nielsen measure of a market of television viewers. An ADI includes all jurisdictions within a metro area, which can receive the signal of a particular station. The United States has over 200 ADIs.

Arlasienne: [French] rings or slices of vegetables cooked in oil.

Arm steak: A steak cut from the chuck which require rather long slow cooking.

Armadillo: A game animal indigenous to the Southwest, it has a flavor comparable to duck.

Aroma : Odor or fragrance

Aromatic Rice : Rice with a nutty or popcorn aroma and flavor

Aromatic: A vegetable, herb, or spice that gives food a lively fragrance and flavor. In classic cooking, a reference to "aromatics" most often means onions, carrot and celery.

Arracheras: The word used in Mexico for fajitas, or skirt steak.

Arrival notice: A sheet on a freight bill that notifies a recipient that a shipment has arrived at its destination.

Arrowhead : Ferns that look similar to asparagus and have a flavor that is a cross between asparagus and artichoke. Similar to some vegetables, arrowhead ferns collapse considerably when cooked.

Arrowroot : A tasteless, starchy substance used as a thickening agent.

Arrowroot: A starch similar in appearance and qualities as cornstarch. White, powdery thickening agent ground finer than flour. It is preferable to cornstarch because it provides a clear finish, rather than a cloudy paste. Arrowroot is extracted from rhizomes and was historically used by American Indians to heal arrow wounds, hence the name.

Arroz : Spanish term for rice.

Arroz con pollo: [Spanish] rice with chicken.

Arroz: [Portuguese] rice. It is not a Spanish term.

Artichoke : The large flowerhead of a plant of the thistle family. It has tough gray-green petal-shaped leaves with soft flesh underneath (which is eaten), a furry choke (that is discarded) and a tender center (called the heart which is also eaten).

Artichoke: A name shared by three unrelated plants: the globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke and Chinese (or Japanese) artichoke. Considered the true artichoke, the globe artichoke is cultivated mainly in California's mid-coastal region. It is the bud of a large plant from the thistle family and has tough, petal shaped leaves. The tender base of the leaves and the heart are the edible portions. They are available year-round, with the peak season March through May. Buy deep green, heavy-for-their-size artichokes with a tight leaf formation.

Artificial sweetener: Non-nutritive (contain no nutrients), high-intensity sugar substitutes (See Lab Seven).

Artificial sweeteners: Numerous kinds and brands on the market. Available in liquid, granular, and tablet forms. Follow label instructions carefully. Not a good substitute for sugar in baked recipes. They may be stored indefinitely if kept tightly closed at room temperature.

Artisan (baker): Skilled craftsman or trade; baker who produces bread or bakery goods using production methods that are part hand-made. Often refers to European crusty breads or low-ratio cakes and desserts.

Artisanal cheese: Made by hand, in small quantities, with respect for cheese-making traditions; frequently farmstead, but sometimes using others' known herds.

Arugula : A tangy, aromatic salad green with a mustard flavor; often used in Europe, but becoming increasingly popular in North America. Arugula perks up a salad or sauteed vegetable dish, and can usually be found in specialty produce markets and supermarkets, often in small bunches with their roots still attached.

Arugula: Also known as Rocket, Arugula is the most strangely flavored of all greens, possessing a distinctive hot, peppery muddiness that may be an acquired taste. Younger, smaller arugula is milder; old arugula may be far too hot.

As advertised: A sale price for an item featured in a weekly ad that is lower than the regular price.

Asada (Asado): [Spanish] roasted or broiled.

Asadero Cheese : A white semifirm Mexican cheese made from whole cow's milk. Asadero has a mild flavor and is usually found in loaves that vary from 8 ounces to 11 pounds. Asadero means "fit for roasting," indicating this cheese is very suitable for melting; also known as Chihuahua and Oaxaca.

Asadero: Rubbery white cheese originally made only in the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Michoacan, it is now made in the United States; a cooked cheese made from equal portions of fresh and sour milk; frequently sold braided; it melts in gooey strings; also called Chihuahua, Mennonite or Oaxaca cheese; Monterey Jack or Longhorn Cheddar may be substituted.

Asado : Term used to describe Mexican dishes of broiled or roasted meat.

Asador: [Spanish] wire mesh stovetop grill which can be used to roast vegetables over an outdoor fire or on the stovetop.

Asafetida: A gummy resin derived from a special plant. Also comes in powder form. Used as a flavoring or spice in Persian and Indian cooking or as a condiment to be sprinkled over food after it has been cooked. It has a bitter taste and a pungent aroma similar to garlic and truffles.

Asar: [Spanish] to roast or broil.

Ascorbic Acid : The chemical name for vitamin C. It is used as an antidarkening agent for fruits, as well as an antioxidant and preservative.

Ascorbic-acid mixture for fruit: A crystalline or powdered mixture containing vitamin C and sugar. It is used to prevent darkening of fruits and vegetables after peeling.

Asiago Cheese : Made from cow's milk, this semifirm Italian cheese has a rich, nutty, pungent flavor. Asiago di Taglio is aged for up to 60 days, is semifirm and used as a table cheese. When cured for six months or more asiago becomes hard and is used for grating.

Asiago cheese: Hard Italian cheese with a rich nutty flavor. It is made from whole or part-skim cow's milk, and comes in small wheels. It is among the best substitutes for Parmigiano-Reggiano. This Italian cheese originally came from the Province of Vicenza. Asiago is served in two different forms. The aged cheese (more than one year) is hard and is considered a grating cheese, like Parmesan or Romano. The younger variety, when still soft, is used on cheese trays and antipasto presentations. The hard, aged asiago has a full, rich, almost nutty, flavor. The softer, younger cheese is milder in flavor. In the past asiago was made with ewe's milk. Today, most types are produced using cow's milk. For a refreshing change, substitute grated asiago for Parmesan in your favorite recipe. It enhances salads, pastas, and pizzas.

Asn: Advanced shipping notice.

Asopao: [Spanish] soupy stew.

Asparagus : A vegetable with an upright stalk and small, scale-like leaves along the stalk, capped by a ruffle of small leaves at the top. Tender stalks are usually youngerand have a slightly pungent, bitter flavor, an light green color and a purple-tinged tip.

Asparagus: A member of the lily family, the earliest stalks are a beautiful apple-green with purple-tinged tips. Asparagus spears poke through the earth in spring. If not picked, these young shoots grow into tall ferny branches with bright red berries. Europeans prefer white asparagus which is grown underground to prevent it from becoming green. White spears are usually thick and are smoother than the green variety. There is also a purple variety called Viola.

Aspic : 1. A clarified jelly used to cover cold foods. 2. Also a gelatin salad.

Aspic: A clear jelly made from stock, fumet, wine or fruit juices used to mold dishes. These preparations are often elaborately decorated for use on buffets. Both savory and sweet foods are set in aspic. Cubes of aspic are a common garnish to foie gras.

Assembly of components: Food purchased to combine into an in-store product, which is sold fresh or frozen, ready-to-cook, or ready-to-eat. The process requires skilled labor and equipment for food safety, but is not as demanding as a "scratch/on-site" operation.

Asset: Items or resources used to facilitate or add value to a company's operation. See assets; assets, fixed.

Assets, current: Cash, securities or resources (CDs, T-Bills, accounts receivable or inventory) that can be readily converted into cash in a year.

Assets, fixed: Items or resources, such as equipment, vehicles and buildings, used to finance a company's operations,

Assets, frozen: A creditor's lien on terms or resources.

Ates: [Spanish] sweetsop; sweet fruit pastes; an equal amount of fruit pulp and sugar.

Atm: Automated teller machine.

Atole: Pre-Columbian drink made from corn; corn gruel; made by boiling ground dry-roasted corn and water; traditionally served with tamales; may be flavored with chocolate, nuts or cinnamon and other spices and sweetened with sugar for a breakfast drink; sometimes blended with chiles to make a savory dish.

Atun: [Spanish] tuna.

Au bleu: [French] blue; fish cooked immediately after being caught will turn blue upon preparation.

Au Buerre : Means with butter. Used to describe dishes sauteed, cooked, or finished with butter.

Au Four : In the oven

Au gratin Describing a dish with a browned topping of bread crumbs and/or cheese; a French term

au Gratin : A French term for a dish with a browned topping of bread or cracker crumbs and/or grated cheese. Also known as gratin?.

Au gratin: [French] cooked food, covered with a sauce and sprinkled with crumbled or grated cheese, dotted with butter and browned under the grill or broiler.

Au jus Referring to meats, poultry, or game served with its own unthickened juices; a French term

Au Jus : A French term for roasted poultry or meats served with their natural, unthickened juices.

Au jus: [French] served in unthickened natural juices or natural meat drippings.

Au Lait : With milk

Au lait: [French] with milk.

au Rouge : Served in a red sauce

Aubergine: Purple fruit, used as a vegetable. Also known as an eggplant. Another (Indian) word for eggplant or aubergine is brinjal.

Audience, target: Advertising designed to reach a certain group of people.

Aurore: A term associated with a pink cream sauce, colored with paprika or that have tomato puree or concasse added to it.

Authorization or authorization to purchase: An approval for a category manager to purchase products, to store them in a warehouse and to list them in a store's order book.

Authorization slip or authorization letter: A company form or letter that allows a broker or manufacturer's representative to call on a store manager or owner.

Authorized items: Products that a company's headquarters authorizes for distribution to retailers or stores.

Authorized list: A list of company-approved vendors and products.

Authorized stock item: A product that company headquarters must approve for retailers or company stores to stock.

Automated clearinghouse (ach): A company that electronically transfers monies between financial institutions. See ACH card.

Automated clearinghouse card: An electronic transfer of funds between bank accounts.

Automated teller machine (atm): An electronic banking system that uses cash/credit cards to process customer's transactions, such as a deposit or withdrawal from a bank account.

Automatic distribution: A chain stores' and wholesale grocers' method to determine how many products and the amount of a product to deliver to retail stores, based on the retailers' market share and profitability, whether or not the retailer has a specific order. See forced distribution.

Automatic ordering: A retail ordering method that automatically replenishes fast-moving items.

Automatic vending: The sale of merchandise through a coin-operated machine.

Aux fines herbes: [French] term applied to a dish to which a combination of delicate fresh herbs (usually tarragon, chervil, parsley, and chives) have been added.

Average hourly wage (ahw): An averaging of total wages that is derived by dividing the total wages paid by the total hours worked.

Average inventory on hand: A calculation of the worth, expressed in dollars, of the inventory in a store that is determined by dividing the costs of goods sold by the number of retail/wholesale turns.

Average item retail (air): The computed, average retail price of all products sold in a store.

Average order: The amount of money a customer spends on each shopping trip.

Averaging cost: A calculation that determines a product's current cost by adding a product's current cost to its replacement cost and dividing that sum by two.

Avo: Avoid verbal orders.

Avocado : A tropical pear shaped fruit with a large single pit. It's skin can have a smooth or rough-textured green to dark purple color. It's flesh is a light green or yellowish green with a smooth creamy texture. It has a high unsaturated fat content and is usually eaten raw served in salads or in guacamole.

Avocado: A fruit treated as a vegetable, the avocado is native to Central or South America, but is now widely grown in Florida, California, and many other warm places. It should be quite soft before opening and eating. Fruit with leathery skin and soft, buttery flesh; it yields to light pressure when ripe; the Haas is smaller with pebbly black-brown skin and is darker than the emerald type grown in Florida; always use Haas avocados as they are more flavorful and much less watery than the Florida variety

Avoid verbal orders (avo): A management system that requires written notice of changes in policies and procedures.

Awa: An important food fish of the Indo:Pacific region that offers a tender, white flesh. Hawaiians use Awa for making fish cakes and sashimi. Also called "Milkfish."

Awma: American Wholesale Marketers Association.

Azafron: Used as a substitute for saffron; lacks flavor and is used only for color.

Azucar: [Spanish] sugar.


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