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F

Filial generation (F1, F2)
Each generation of offspring in a breeding program, designated F1, F2, etc.

Fingerprinting
In genetics, the identification of multiple specific alleles on a person's DNA to produce a unique identifier for that person.
See also: forensics

Finished DNA Sequence
High-quality, low error, gap-free DNA sequence of the human genome. Achieving this ultimate 2003 HGP goal requires additional sequencing to close gaps, reduce ambiguities, and allow for only a single error every 10,000 bases, the agreed-upon standard for HGP finished sequence.
See also: sequencing, draft sequence

Flow cytometry
Analysis of biological material by detection of the light-absorbing or fluorescing properties of cells or subcellular fractions (i.e., chromosomes) passing in a narrow stream through a laser beam. An absorbance or fluorescence profile of the sample is produced. Automated sorting devices, used to fractionate samples, sort successive droplets of the analyzed stream into different fractions depending on the fluorescence emitted by each droplet.

Flow karyotyping
Use of flow cytometry to analyze and separate chromosomes according to their DNA content.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
A physical mapping approach that uses fluorescein tags to detect hybridization of probes with metaphase chromosomes and with the less-condensed somatic interphase chromatin.

Forensics
The use of DNA for identification. Some examples of DNA use are to establish paternity in child support cases; establish the presence of a suspect at a crime scene, and identify accident victims.

Frameshift
A type of mutation characterized by insertions or deletions that change the identities of the codons following the mutation. Often this creates stop codons that cause premature termination of the protein.

Fraternal twin
Siblings born at the same time as the result of fertilization of two ova by two sperm. They share the same genetic relationship to each other as any other siblings.
See also: identical twin

Full gene sequence
The complete order of bases in a gene. This order determines which protein a gene will produce.

Functional genomics
The study of genes, their resulting proteins, and the role played by the proteins the body's biochemical processes.


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