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H

Haploid
A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material) present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells.
See also: diploid

Haplotype
A way of denoting the collective genotype of a number of closely linked loci on a chromosome.

Hemizygous
Having only one copy of a particular gene. For example, in humans, males are hemizygous for genes found on the Y chromosome.

Hereditary cancer
Cancer that occurs due to the inheritance of an altered gene within a family.
See also: sporadic cancer

Heterozygosity
The presence of different alleles at one or more loci on homologous chromosomes.

Heterozygote
See: heterozygosity

Highly conserved sequence
DNA sequence that is very similar across several different types of organisms.
See also: gene, mutation

High-throughput sequencing
A fast method of determining the order of bases in DNA.
See also: sequencing

Homeobox
A short stretch of nucleotides whose base sequence is virtually identical in all the genes that contain it. Homeoboxes have been found in many organisms from fruit flies to human beings. In the fruit fly, a homeobox appears to determine when particular groups of genes are expressed during development.

Homolog
A member of a chromosome pair in diploid organisms or a gene that has the same origin and functions in two or more species.

Homologous chromosome
Chromosome containing the same linear gene sequences as another, each derived from one parent.

Homologous recombination
Swapping of DNA fragments between paired chromosomes.

Homology
Similarity in DNA or protein sequences between individuals of the same species or among different species.

Homozygote
An organism that has two identical alleles of a gene.
See also: heterozygote

Homozygous
See: homozygote

Human artificial chromosome (HAC)
A vector used to hold large DNA fragments.
See also: chromosome, DNA

Human gene therapy
See: gene therapy

Human Genome Initiative
Collective name for several projects begun in 1986 by DOE to create an ordered set of DNA segments from known chromosomal locations, develop new computational methods for analyzing genetic map and DNA sequence data, and develop new techniques and instruments for detecting and analyzing DNA. This DOE initiative is now known as the Human Genome Program. The joint national effort, led by DOE and NIH, is known as the Human Genome Project.

Human Genome Project (HGP)
Formerly titled Human Genome Initiative. An international research project begun in 1990 and completed in 2003 that mapped and sequenced the three billion DNA bases of the human genome.
See also: Human Genome Initiative

Hybrid
The offspring of genetically different parents.
See also: heterozygote

Hybridization
The process of joining two complementary strands of DNA or one each of DNA and RNA to form a double-stranded molecule.


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