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Bosnia and Herzegovina


    • Overview:
      Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of February 1995, Bosnia and Herzegovina was being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic warfare that has caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. No economic statistics for 1992-94 are available, although output clearly has fallen substantially below the levels of earlier years and almost certainly is well below $1,000 per head. The country receives substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the international community.

    • National product:
      GDP - purchasing power parity - $NA

    • National product real growth rate:
      NA%

    • National product per capita:
      $NA

    • Inflation rate (consumer prices):
      NA%

    • Unemployment rate:
      NA%

    • Budget:

        revenues:
        $NA

        expenditures:
        $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

    • Exports:
      $NA

        commodities:
        NA

        partners:
        NA

    • Imports:
      $NA

        commodities:
        NA

        partners:
        NA

    • External debt:
      $NA

    • Industrial production:
      growth rate NA%; production is sharply down because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-94)

    • Electricity:

        capacity:
        3,800,000 kW

        production:
        NA kWh

        consumption per capita:
        NA kWh (1993)

    • Industries:
      steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining (1991)

    • Agriculture:
      accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards, vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive (1991)

    • Illicit drugs:
      NA

    • Economic aid:
      $NA

    • Currency:
      1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held area, presumably to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new Serbian dinars used in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably supplanting local currencies in areas held by Bosnian government

    • Exchange rates:
      NA

    • Fiscal year:
      calendar year






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