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Nicaragua


    • Names:

        conventional long form:
        Republic of Nicaragua

        conventional short form:
        Nicaragua

        local long form:
        Republica de Nicaragua

        local short form:
        Nicaragua

    • Digraph:
      NU

    • Type:
      republic

    • Capital:
      Managua

    • Administrative divisions:
      16 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, Zelaya

    • Independence:
      15 September 1821 (from Spain)

    • National holiday:
      Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

    • Constitution:
      9 January 1987

    • Legal system:
      civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts

    • Suffrage:
      16 years of age; universal

    • Executive branch:

        chief of state and head of government:
        President Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990); Vice President Virgilio GODOY Reyes (since 25 April 1990); election last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held November 1996); results - Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 40.8%, other 4.5%

        cabinet:
        Cabinet

    • Legislative branch:
      unicameral

        National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional):
        elections last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held November 1996); results - UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%; seats - (92 total) UNO 41, FSLN 39, "Centrist" (Dissident UNO) 12

    • Judicial branch:
      Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

    • Political parties and leaders:

        far right:
        Liberal Constitutionalist Party* (PLC), Arnold ALEMAN; Conservative Popular Alliance Party (APC), Myriam ARGUELLO; Central American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS Echaverry; Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLUIN), Alfonso MOCADO Guillen; Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCN - formed in 1992 by the merger of the Conservative Social Party (PSC) with the Democratic Conservative Party (PCD) and PCL, the Conservative party of Labor), Fernando AGUERO; National Justice Party (PJN), Jorge DIAZ Cruz; National Conservative Party* (PNC), Adolfo CALERO

        center right:
        Neoliberal Party* (PALI), Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel; National Action Party* (PAN), Delvis MONTIEL; Independent Liberal Party* (PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO

        center left:
        Christian Democratic Union (UDC), Luis Humberto GUZMAN; Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto URROZ; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Adolfo JARQUIN; Movement of Revolutionary Unity (MUR), Pablo HERNANDEZ; Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS), Sergio RAMIREZ; Democratic Action Movement (MAD), Eden PASTORA; Communist Party of Nicaragua* (PCdeN), Eli ALTIMIRANO Perez

        far left:
        Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA; Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA; Popular Action Movement-Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ; Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN), Gustavo TABLADA; Unidad Nicaraguense de Obreros, Campesinos, y Profesionales (UNOCP), Rosalio GONZALEZ Urbina

        note:
        parties marked with an asterisk belong to the National Opposition Union (UNO), an alliance of moderate parties, which, however, does not always follow a unified political agenda

    • Other political or pressure groups:
      National Workers Front (FNT) is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions: Sandinista Workers' Central (CST); Farm Workers Association (ATC); Health Workers Federation (FETASALUD); National Union of Employees (UNE); National Association of Educators of Nicaragua (ANDEN); Union of Journalists of Nicaragua (UPN); Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations (CONAPRO); and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers (UNAG); Permanent Congress of Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions: Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS); Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A); Independent General Confederation of Labor (CGT-I); and Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS); Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a confederation of business groups

    • Member of:
      BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

    • Diplomatic representation in US:

        chief of mission:
        Ambassador Roberto Genaro MAYORGA Cortes

        chancery:
        1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

        telephone:
        [1] (202) 939-6570

        consulate(s) general:
        Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco

    • US diplomatic representation:

        chief of mission:
        Ambassador John F. MAISTO

        embassy:
        Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua

        mailing address:
        APO AA 34021

        telephone:
        [505] (2) 666010, 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026, 666027, 666032 through 34

        FAX:
        [505] (2) 666046

    • Flag:
      three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band






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