BAENA, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cordova; 32 m. by road S.E. of the city of Cordova. Pop. (1900) 14,539. Baena is picturesquely situated near the river Marbella, on the slope of a hill crowned with a castle, which formerly belonged to the famous captain Gonzalo de Cordova. Farming, horsebreeding, linen-weaving and the manufacture of olive-oil are the chief local industries. The nearest railway station is Luque (pop. 497 2), 4 m. S.E. on the Jaen-Lucena line. The site of the Roman town (Baniana or Biniana) can still be traced, and various Roman antiquities have been disinterred. In 1292 the Moors under Mahommed II. of Granada vainly besieged Baena, which was held for Sancho IV. of Castile; and the five Moorish heads in its coat-of-arms commemorate the defence.
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