Henry Barrowe - Encyclopedia


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HENRY (? BARROWE 1 55 0 - 1593), English Puritan and Separatist, was born about 1550, at Shipdam, Norfolk, of a family related by marriage to the lord keeper Bacon, and probably to Aylmer, bishop of London. He matriculated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, in November 1566, and graduated B.A. in 1569-1570. Afterwards he "followed the court" for some time, leading a frivolous if not licentious life. He was a member of Gray's Inn for a few years from 1576, but was never called to the bar. About 1580 or 1581 he was deeply impressed by a sermon, whereupon he retired to the country, and was led by study and meditation to the strictest form of Puritanism. Subsequently, in what manner is not known, he came into intimate relations with John Greenwood, the Separatist leader, whose views (probably due, in part at least, to Browne's influence) he adopted without reserve. Though not strictly resident in London at this time, he was associated with "the brethren of the Separation" there, in whose secret meetings his natural earnestness and eloquence made him conspicuous. Greenwood having been imprisoned in the Clink, Barrowe came from the country to visit him, and on the 19th of November 1586 was detained by the gaoler and brought before Archbishop Whitgift. He insisted on the illegality of this arrest, refused either to take the ex officio oath or to give bail for future appearance, and was committed to the Gatehouse. After nearly six months' detention and several irregular examinations before the high commissioners, he and Greenwood were formally indicted (May 1587) for recusancy under an act originally directed against Papists. They were ordered to find heavy bail for comformity, and to remain in the Fleet Prison until it was forthcoming. Barrowe continued a prisoner for the remainder of his life, nearly six years, sometimes in close confinement, sometimes having "the liberty of the prison." He was subjected to several more examinations, once before the privy council at Whitehall on the 18th of March 1588, as a result of petition to the queen. On these occasions he vigorously maintained the principle of separatism, denouncing the prescribed ritual of the Church as "a false worship," and the bishops as oppressors and persecutors. During his imprisonments he was engaged in written controversy with Robert Browne (down to 1588), who had yielded a partial submission to the established order, and whom he therefore accounted a renegade. He also wrote several vigorous treatises in defence of separatism and congregational independency, the most important being: - A True Description of the Visible Congregation of the Saints, &c. (1589); A Plain Refutation of Mr Gifford's Booke, intituled A Short Treatise Gainst the Donatistes of England (1590-1591), and A Brief Discovery of the False Church (1591). Others were written in conjunction with his fellow-prisoner, Greenwood. These writings were taken charge of by friends and mostly printed in Holland. By 1590 the bishops thought it advisable to try other means of convincing or silencing these indomitable controversialists, and sent several conforming Puritan ministers to confer with them, but without effect. At length it was resolved to proceed on a capital charge of "devising and circulating seditious books," for which, as the law then stood, it was easy to secure a conviction. They were tried and sentenced to death on the 23rd of March 1593. What followed is, happily, unique in the history of English misrule. The day after sentence they were brought out as if for execution and respited. On the 31st of March they were taken to the gallows, and after the ropes had been placed about their necks were again respited. Finally they were hanged early on the morning of the 6th of April. The motive of all this is obscure, but there is some evidence that the lord treasurer Burghley endeavoured to save their lives, and was frustrated by Whitgift and other bishops.

The opinions of Browne and Barrowe had much in common, but were not identical. Both maintained the right and duty of the Church to carry out necessary reforms without awaiting the permission of the civil power; and both advocated congregational independency. But the ideal of Browne was a spiritual democracy, towards which separation was only a means. Barrowe, on the other hand, regarded the whole established church order as polluted by the relics of Roman Catholicism, and insisted on separation as essential to pure worship and discipline (see further Congregationalism). Barrowe had been credited by H. M. Dexter and others with being the author of the "Marprelate Tracts"; but this is improbable.

Authorities.-H. M. Dexter, The Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years; F. J. Powicke, Henry Barrowe and the Exiled Church. See also B. Brook, Lives of the Puritans; and Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigienses (1861), vol. ii.

a seaport and municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, 2642 m. N.W. by N. from London, on the Furness railway. Pop. (1891) 51,712; (1901) 57,586. It lies on the seaward side of the hammer-shaped peninsula forming part of the district of Furness, between the estuary of the Duddon and Morecambe Bay, where a narrow channel intervenes between the mainland and the long low island of Walney, on which the erection of a strong fort was undertaken by the War Office in 1904. In 1905 the connexion of Walney with the mainland by a bridge was undertaken. In the channel is Barrow Island (among others) which is connected with the mainland, reclamation having been carried on until only a narrow channel was left, which was utilized as docks. Barrow is of modern and remarkably rapid growth. Its rise was dependent primarily on the existence and working of the veins of pure haematite iron ore in the district of Furness (q.v.). At the outset Barrow merely exported the ore to the furnaces of South Wales and the midlands. At the beginning of the 19th century this export amounted at most to a few thousand tons, and though by the middle of the century it had reached some 50,000 in 1847 the population of Barrow was only 325. In 1846 the first section of the Furness railway was opened, connecting Barrow with the mines near Dalton; in the ensuing years a great increase in trade justified the opening of further communications, and in 1859 the iron works of Messrs Schneider & Hannay were instituted. The Barrow Haematite Steel Company (1866) absorbed this company, and a great output of steel produced by the Bessemer process was begun. Other industries followed. Of these the shipbuilding works have surpassed the steel works in importance, the celebrated firm of Vickers, Sons & Maxim having a yard where they construct numerous vessels of war as well as others. There are also a petroleum storage establishment, a paper-pulp factory, jute works, and engineering and wagon works.

The docks in the strait between Barrow Island and the mainland were constructed in 1867, and named the Devonshire and Buccleuch docks. The Ramsden docks are a subsequent extension. These are 24 ft. in depth. There are also a graving dock 500 ft. long a depositing dock accommodating vessels of 16 ft. draught, and two electric cranes each able to lift 150 tons. The Furness railway company is the dock authority. Passenger steamers run on weekdays to Belfast.

The town is laid out in rectangular form, and contains several handsome churches, municipal buildings, exchange and other public buildings. An electric tramway service connects the outskirts and the centre. There are statues of Lord Frederick Cavendish (assassinated at Dublin, 1882), in front of the townhall, and of Sir James Ramsden (d. 1896), managing director of the Furness railway and first mayor of Barrow, to whom, together with the dukes of Devonshire and Buccleuch, the town owed much of its rise in the middle of the 19th century. The cottage inhabited by George Romney the painter from 1742 to 1755 has been preserved from demolition and retained as a memorial. Educational institutions include a school of science and art, a girls' high school and a technical school. Barrow is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Carlisle. The parliamentary borough (1885), falling within the North Lonsdale division of the county, returns one member. The town was incorporated in 1867, and became a county borough in 1888. The corporation consists of a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors. Area, 11,023 acres.

(1795186 o), English architect, was born in London on the 23rd of May 1795, the son of a stationer. He was articled to a firm of architects, with whom he remained till 1817, when he set out on a three years' tour in Greece and Italy, Egypt and Palestine for the purpose of studying architecture. On his return to England in 1820 he settled in London. One of the first works by which his abilities as an architect became generally known was the church of St Peter at Brighton, completed in 1826. He built many other churches; but the marked preference for Italian architecture, which he acquired during his travels, showed itself in various important undertakings of his earlier years. In 1831 he completed the Travellers' Club in Pall Mall, a splendid work in the Italian style and the first, of its kind built in London. In the same style and on a grander scale he built in 1837 the Reform Club. He was also engaged on numerous private mansions in London, the finest being Bridgewater House (1847). Birmingham possesses one of his best works in King Edward's grammar school, built in the Tudor style between 1833 and 1836. For Manchester he designed the Royal Institution of Fine Arts (1824) and the Athenaeum (1836); and for Halifax the town-hall. He was engaged for some years in reconstructing the Treasury buildings, Whitehall. But his masterpiece, notwithstanding all unfavourable criticism, is the Houses of Parliament at Westminster (1840-1860). Barry was elected A.R.A. in 1840 and R.A. in the following year. His genius and achievements were recognized by the representative artistic bodies of the principal. European nations; and his name was enrolled as a member of the academies of art at Rome, Berlin, St Petersburg, Brussels and Stockholm. He was chosen F.R.S. in 1849 and was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1852. He died suddenly at Clapham near London on the 12th of May 1860, and his remains were interred in Westminster Abbey. As a landscape gardener he was no less brilliant than as an architect, and in connexion with the building of the Houses of Parliament he formed schools of modelling, stone and wood carving, cabinetmaking, metal-working, glass and decorative painting, and of encaustic tile-making. In 1867 appeared a life of him by his son Bishop Alfred Barry. A claim was thereupon set up on behalf of Pugin, the famous architect, who was dead and who had been Barry's assistant, to a much larger share in the work of designing the Houses of Parliament than was admitted in Dr Barry's narrative. The controversy raged for a time, but without substantiating Pugin's claim.

His second son, Alfred Barry (1826-), was educated at King's College, London, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was 4th wrangler and 'gained a first-class in the classical tripos in 1848. He was successively sub-warden of Trinity College, Glenalmond (1849-1854) head-master of Leeds grammar school (1854-1862), principal of Cheltenham College (1862-1868), and principal of King's College, London (1868-1883). He was canon of Worcester from 1871 to 1881, and of Westminster from 1881 to 1884. From 1884 to 1889 he served as bishop of Sydney and primate of Australia, and on his return to England he was assistant bishop in the diocese of Rochester from 1889 to 1891, and rector of St James's, Piccadilly, from 1895 to 1900. He was appointed canon of Windsor in 1891 and assistant bishop in West London in 1897. Besides the life of his father mentioned above, he published numerous theological works.

Another 5011, Edward Middleton Barry (1830-1880), was also an architect. He acted as assistant to his father during the latter years of Sir Charles's life. On the death of his father, the duty of completing the latter's unfinished work devolved upon him. Amongst other buildings thus completed were the Houses of Parliament at Westminster (see Architecture, fig. 9 1, and Plate X. fig. 118), and Halifax town-hall (Id. fig. 90). In 1861 he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy; and in 1869 a full academician. From 1873 till his death he held the Academy's professorship of architecture. Among other buildings designed by him were Covent Garden theatre, Charing Cross and Cannon Street hotels, the Birmingham and Midland Institute, new galleries for the National Gallery and new chambers for the Inner Temple. He died on the 27th of January, 1880.

The youngest SOn, SIR John Wolfe Wolfe-Barry (1836), the eminent engineer, who assumed the additional name of Wolfe in 1898, was educated at Glenalmond, and was articled as engineering pupil to Sir John Hawkshaw, with whom he was associated in the building of the railway bridges across the Thames at Charing Cross and Cannon Street. In 1867 he began to practise on his own account, and soon gained an extensive connexion with railway companies, both in Great Britain and in other countries. Among the works on which he was engaged were extensions of the Metropolitan District railway, the St Paul's station and bridge of the London, Chatham & Dover railway, the Barry Docks of the Barry railway company near Cardiff, and the Tower and new Kew bridges over the Thames. On the completion of the Tower Bridge in 1894, he was made a C.B., becoming K.C.B. three years later. He served on several royal commissions, including those on Irish Public Works (1886-1890), Highlands and Islands of Scotland (1889-1890), Accidents to Railway Servants (1899-1900), Port of London (1900-1902), and London Traffic (1903-1905). He was elected president of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1896, and published books on Railway Appliances (1874), and, with Sir F. J. Bramwell, on Railways and Locomotives (1882).

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