DAIRY FACTORIES In connexion with co-operative cheese-making the merit of having founded the first "cheesery" or cheese factory is generally credited to Jesse Williams, who lived near Rome, Oneida county, N.Y. The system, therefore, was of American origin. Williams was a skilled cheese-maker, and the produce of his dairy sold so freely, at prices over the average, that he increased his output of cheese by adding to his own supply of milk other quantities which he obtained from his neighbours. His example was so widely followed that by the year 1866 there had been established close upon 500 cheese factories in New York state alone. In 1870 two co-operative cheeseries were at work in England, one in the town of Derby and one at Longford in the same county. There are now thousands of cheeseries in the United States and Canada, and also many "creameries," or butter factories, for the making of high-class butter.
The first creamery was that of Alanson Slaughter, and it was built near Wallkill, Orange county, N.Y., in 1861, or ten years later than the first cheese factory; it dealt daily with the milk of 375 cows. Cheeseries and creameries would almost certainly have become more numerous than they are in England but for the rapidly expanding urban trade in country milk. The development of each, indeed, has been contemporaneous since 1871, and they are found to work well in conjunction one with the other - that is to say, a factory is useful for converting surplus milk into cheese or butter when the milk trade is overstocked, whilst the trade affords a convenient avenue for the sale of milk whenever this may happen to be preferable to the making of cheese or butter. Extensive dealers in milk arrange for its conversion into cheese or butter, as the case may be, at such times as the milk market needs relief, and in this way a cheesery serves as a sort of economic safety-valve to the milk trade. The same cannot always be said of creameries, because the machine-skimmed milk of some of these establishments has been far too much used to the prejudice of the legitimate milk trade in urban districts. Be this as it may, the operations of cheeseries and creameries in conjunction with the milk trade have led to the diminution of home dairying. A rapidly increasing population has maintained, and probably increased, its consumption of milk, which has obviously diminished the farmhouse production of cheese, and also of butter. The foreign competitor has been less successful with cheese than with butter, for he is unable to produce an article qualified to compete with the best that is made in Great Britain. In the case of butter, on the other hand, the imported article, though not ever surpassing the best homemade, is on the average much better, especially as regards uniformity of quality. Colonial and foreign producers, however, send into the British markets as a rule only the best of their butter, as they are aware that their inferior grades would but injure the reputation their products have acquired.
There are no official statistics concerning dairy factories in Great Britain, and such figures relating to Ireland were issued for the first time in 1901. The number of dairy factories in Ireland in 1900 was returned at 506, comprising 333 in Munster, 9 2 in Ulster, 52 in Leinster and 29 in Connaught. Of the total number of factories, 495 received milk only, 9 milk and cream and 2 cream only. As to ownership, 219 were joint-stock concerns, 190 were maintained by co-operative farmers and 97 were proprietary. In the year ended 30th September 1900 these factories used up nearly 121 million gallons of milk, namely, 94 in Munster, 14 in Ulster, 7 in Leinster and 6 in Connaught. The number of centrifugal cream-separators in the factories was 985, of which 889 were worked by steam, 79 by water, 9 by horse-power and 8 by hand-power. The number of hands permanently employed was 3653, made up of 976 in Munster,. 279 in Leinster, 278 in Ulster and 120 in Connaught. The year's output was returned at 401,490 cwt. of butter, 439 cwt. of cheese (made from whole milk) and 46,253 gallons of cream. In most cases the skim-milk is returned to the farmers. A return of the number of separators used in private establishments gave a total of 899, comprising 693 in Munster, 157 in Leinster, 39 in Ulster and io in Connaught. In factories and private establishments together as many as 1884 separators were thus accounted for. Much of the factory butter would be sent into the markets of Great Britain, though some would no doubt be retained for local consumption. A great improvement in the quality of Irish butter has recently been noticeable in the exhibits entered at the London dairy show.
Adulteration Of Dairy Produce The Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1899, which came into operation on the 1st of January 1900, contains several sections relating to the trade in dairy produce in the United Kingdom. Section 1 imposes penalties in the case of the importation of produce insufficiently marked, such as (a) margarine or margarine-cheese, except in passages conspicuously marked "Margarine" or "Margarine-cheese"; (b) adulterated or impoverished butter (other than margarine) or adulterated or impoverished milk or cream, except in packages or cans conspicuously marked with a name or description indicating that the butter or milk or cream has been so treated; (c) condensed separated or skimmed milk, except in tins or other receptacles which bear a label whereon the words "machine-skimmed milk" or "skimmed milk" are printed in large and legible type. For the purposes of this section an article of food is deemed to be adulterated or impoverished if it has been mixed with any other substance, or if any part of it has been abstracted, so as in either case to affect injuriously its quality, substance, or nature; provided that an article of food shall not be deemed to be adulterated by reason only of the addition of any preservative or colouring matter of such a nature and in such quantity as not to render the article injurious to health. Section 7 provides that every occupier of a manufactory of margarine or margarine-cheese, and every wholesale dealer in such substances, shall keep a register showing the quantity and destination of each consignment of such substances sent out from his manufactory or place of business, and this register shall be open to the inspection of any officer of the board of agriculture. Any such officer shall have power to enter at all reasonable times any such manufactory, and to inspect any process of manufacture therein, and to take samples for analysis Section 8 is of much practical importance, as it limits the quantity of butter-fat which may be contained in margarine; it states that it shall be unlawful to manufacture, sell, expose for sale or import any margarine the fat of which contains more than io% of butter-fat, and every person who manufactures, sells, exposes for sale or imports any margarine which contains more than that percentage shall be guilty of an offence under the Margarine Act 1887. For the purposes of the act margarinecheese is defined as "any substance, whether compound or otherwise, which is prepared in imitation of cheese, and which contains fat not derived from milk"; whilst cheese is defined as "the substance usually known as cheese, containing no fat derived otherwise than from milk." The so-called "filled" cheese of American origin, in which the butter-fat of the milk is partially or wholly replaced by some other fat, would come under the head of "margarine-cheese." In making such cheese a cheap form of fat, usually of animal origin, but sometimes vegetable, is added to and incorporated with the skim-milk, and thus takes the place previously occupied by the genuine butter-fat. The act is regarded by some as defective in that it does not prohibit the artificial colouring of margarine to imitate butter.
In connexion with this act a departmental committee was appointed in 1900 "to inquire and report as to what regulations, if any, may with advantage be made by the board of agriculture under section 4 of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1899, for 1 See also the article Adulteration.
determining what deficiency in any of the normal constituents of genuine milk or cream, or what addition of extraneous matter or proportion of water, in any sample of milk (including condensed milk) or cream, shall for the purposes of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 1875 to 1899, raise a presumption, until the contrary is proved, that the milk or cream is not genuine." Much evidence of the highest interest to dairy-farmers was taken, and subsequently published as a Blue-Book (Cd. 484). The report of the committee (Cd. 491) included the following "recommendations," which were signed by all the members excepting one: - I. That regulations under section 4 of the Food and Drugs Act 1899 be made by the board of agriculture with respect to milk (including condensed milk) and cream.
II. (a) That in the case of any milk (other than skimmed, separated or condensed milk) the total milk-solids in which on being dried at too° C. do not amount to 12% a presumption shall be raised, until the contrary is proved, that the milk is deficient in the normal constituents of genuine milk.
(b) That any milk (other than skimmed, separated or condensed milk) the total milk-solids in which are less than 12%, and in which the amount of milk-fat is less than 3.2 5%, shall be deemed to be deficient in milk-fat as to raise a presumption, until the contrary is proved, that it has been mixed with separated milk or water, or that some portion of its normal content of milk-fat has been removed. In calculating the percentage amount of deficiency of fat the analyst shall have regard to the above-named limit of 3.25 °A of milk-fat.
(c) That any milk (other than skimmed, separated or condensed milk) the total milk-solids in which are less than 12%, and in which the amount of non-fatty milk-solids is less than 8.5%, shall be deemed to be so deficient in normal constituents as to raise a presumption, until the contrary is proved, that it has been mixed with water. In calculating the percentage amount of admixed water the analyst shall have regard to the above-named limit of 8.5% of non-fatty milk-solids, and shall further take into account the extent to which the milk-fat may exceed 3.2 5%III. That the artificial thickening of cream by any addition of gelatin or other substance shall raise a presumption that the cream is not genuine.
IV. That any skimmed or separated milk in which the total milksolids are less than 9% shall be deemed to be so deficient in normal constituents as to raise a presumption, until the contrary is proved, that it has been mixed with water.
V. That any condensed milk (other than that labelled "machineskimmed milk" or "skimmed milk," in conformity with section 1 t of the Food and Drugs Act 1899) in which either the amount of milk-fat is less than to %, or the amount of non-fatty milk-solids is less than 25%, shall be deemed to be so deficient in some of the normal constituents of milk as to raise a presumption, until the contrary is proved, that it is not genuine.
The committee further submitted the following expressions of opinion on points raised before them in evidence: (a) That it is desirable to call the attention of those engaged in the administration of the Food and Drugs Acts to the necessity of adopting effective measures to prevent any addition of water, separated or condensed milk, or other extraneous matter, for the purpose of reducing the quality of genuine milk to any limits fixed by regulation of the board of agriculture.
(b) That it is desirable that steps should be taken with the view of identifying or "ear-marking" separated milk by the addition of some suitable and innocuous substance, and by the adoption of procedure similar to that provided by section 7 of the Food and Drugs Act 1899, in regard to margarine.
(c) That it is desirable that, so far as may be found practicable, the procedure adopted in collecting, forwarding, and retaining pending examination, samples of milk (including condensed milk) and cream under the Food and Drugs Acts should be uniform.
(d) That it is desirable that, so far as may be found practicable, the methods of analysis used in the examination of samples of milk (including condensed milk) or cream taken under the Food and Drugs Acts should be uniform.
(e) That it is desirable in the case of condensed milk (other than that labelled "machine-skimmed milk" or "skimmed milk," in conformity with section t t of the Food and Drugs Act 1899) that the label should state the amount of dilution required to make the proportion of milk-fat equal to that found in uncondensed milk containing not less than 3.25% of milk-fat.
(f) That it is desirable in the case of condensed whole milk to limit, and in the case of condensed machine-skimmed milk to exclude, the addition of sugar.
(g) That the official standardizing of the measuring vessels commercially used in the testing of milk is desirable.
In the minority report, signed by Mr Geo. Barham, the most important clauses are the following: (a) That in the case of any milk (other than skimmed, separated or condensed milk) the total milk-solids in which are less than 11.75%, and in which, during the months of July to February inclusive, the amount of milk-fat is less than 3%, and in the case of any milk which during the months of March to June inclusive shall fall below the above-named limit for total solids, and at the same time shall contain less than 2.75% of fat, it shall be deemed that such milk is so deficient in its normal constituent of fat as to raise a presumption, for the purposes of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 1875 to 1899, until the contrary is proved, that the milk is not genuine.
(b) That any milk (other than skimmed, separated or condensed milk) the total milk-solids in which are less than 11.75%, and in which the amount of non-fatty solids is less than 8.5%, shall be deemed to be so deficient in its normal constituents as to raise a presumption, for the purposes of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 1875 to 1899, until the contrary is proved, that the milk is not genuine. In calculating the amount of the deficiency the analyst shall take into account the extent to which the milk-fat exceeds the limits above named.
(c) That any skimmed or separated milk in which the total milksolids are less than 8.75% shall be deemed to be so deficient in its normal constituents as to raise a presumption, for the purpose of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 1875 to 1899, until the contrary is proved, that the milk is not genuine.
Much controversy arose out of the publication of these reports, the opinion most freely expressed being that the standard recommended in the majority report was too high. The difficulty of the problem is illustrated by, for example, the diverse legal standards for milk that prevail in the United States, where the prescribed percentage of fat in fresh cows' milk ranges from 2.5 in Rhode Island to 3.5 in Georgia and Minnesota, and 3.7 (in the winter months) in Massachusetts, and the prescribed total solids range from 12 in several states (11.5 in Ohio during May and June) up to 13 in others. Standards are recognized in twentyone of the states, but the remaining states have no laws prescribing standards for dairy products. That the public discussion of the reports of the committee was effective is shown by the following regulations which appeared in the London Gazette on the bth of August 1901, and fixed the limit of fat at 3%: The board of agriculture, in exercise of the powers conferred on them by section 4 of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1899, do hereby make the following regulations: 1. Where a sample of milk (not being milk sold as skimmed, or separated or condensed milk) contains less than 3% of milk-fat, it shall be presumed for the purposes of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 1875 to 1899, until the contrary is proved, that the milk is not genuine, by reason of the abstraction therefrom of milk-fat, or the addition thereto of water.
2. Where a sample of milk (not being milk sold as skimmed, or separated or condensed milk) contains less than 8.5% of milk-solids other than milk-fat, it shall be presumed for the purposes of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 1875 to 1899, until the contrary is proved, that the milk is not genuine, by reason of the abstraction therefrom of milk-solids other than milk-fat, or the addition thereto of water.
3. Where a sample of skimmed or separated milk (not being condensed milk) contains less than 9% of milk-solids, it shall be presumed for the purposes of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 1875 to 1899, until the contrary is proved, that the milk is not genuine, by reason of the abstraction therefrom of milk-solids other than milk-fat, or the addition thereto of water.
4. These regulations shall extend to Great Britain.
5. These regulations shall come into operation on the 1st of September 1901.
6. These regulations may be cited as the Sale of Milk Regulations 1901.
In July 1901 another departmental committee was appointed by the board of agriculture to inquire and report as to what regulations, if any, might with advantage be made under section 4 of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1899, for determining what deficiency in any of the normal constituents of butter, or what addition of extraneous matter, or proportion of water in any sample of butter should, for the purpose of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, raise a presumption, until the contrary is proved, that the butter is not genuine. As bearing upon this point reference may be made to a report of the dairy division of the United States department of agriculture on experimental exports of butter, in the appendix to which are recorded the results of the analyses of many samples of butter of varied origin. First, as to American butters, 19 samples were analysed in Wisconsin, 17 in Iowa, 5 in Minnesota and 2 in Vermont, at the respective experiment stations of the states named. The amount of moisture throughout was low, and the quantity of fat correspondingly high. In no case was there more than 15% of water, and only 4 samples contained more than 14%. On the other hand, 1 samples had less than Io %, the lowest being a pasteurized butter from Ames, Iowa, with only 6.72% of water. The average amount of water in the total 43 samples was 11.24%. The fat varies almost inversely as the water, small quantities of curd and ash having to be allowed for. The largest quantity of fat was 91.23% in the sample containing only 6.72% of water. The lowest proportion of fat was 80.18%, whilst the average of all the samples shows 85.9%, which is regarded as a good market standard. The curd varied from o. 55 to 1.7%, with an average of o98. This small amount indicates superior keeping qualities. Theoretically there should be no curd present, but this degree of perfection is never attained in practice. It was desired to have the butter contain about 21% of salt, but the quantity of ash in the 43 samples ranged from o83 to 4.79%, the average being 1.88. Analyses made at Washington of butters other than American showed a general average of 13.22% of water over 28 samples representing 14 countries. The lowest were 10.25% in a Canadian butter and 10.38 in an Australian sample. The highest was 19.1% in an Irish butter, which also contained the remarkably large quantity of 8.28% of salt. Three samples of Danish butter contained 12.65, 14.27 and 15.14% respectively of water. French and Italian unsalted butter included, the former 15.46 and the latter 14.41% of water, and yet appeared to be unusually dry. In 7 samples of Irish butters the percentages of water ranged from 11.48 to 19.1. Of the 28 foreign butters 15 were found to contain preservatives. All 5 samples from Australia, the 2 from France, the single ones from Italy, New Zealand, Argentina, and England, and 4 out of the 7 from Ireland, contained boric acid.
THE Milk Trade The term "milk trade" has come to signify the great traffic in country milk for the supply of dwellers in urban districts. Prior to 1860 this traffic was comparatively small or in its infancy. Thirty years earlier it could not have been brought into existence, for it is an outcome of the great network of railways which was spread over the face of the country in the latter half of the 19th century. It affords an instructive illustration of the process of commercial evolution which has been fostered by the vast increase of urban population within the period indicated. It is a tribute to the spirit of sanitary reform which - as an example in one special direction - has brought about the disestablishment of urban cow-sheds and the consequent demand for milk produced in the shires. London, in fact, is now being regularly supplied with fresh milk from places anywhere within 150 m., and the milk traffic on the railways, not only to London but to other great centres, is an important item. A factor in the development of the milk trade must no doubt be sought in the outbreak of cattle plague in 1865, for it was then that the dairymen of the metropolis were compelled to seek milk all over England, and the capillary refrigerator being invented soon after, the production of milk has remained ever since in the hands of dairymen living mainly at a distance from the towns supplied.
This great change in country dairying, involving the continuous export of enormous quantities of milk from the farms, has been accompanied by subsidiary changes in the management of dairyfarms, and has necessitated the extensive purchase of feedingstuffs for the production of milk, especially in winter-time. It is probable that, in this way, a gradual improvement of the soil on such farms has been effected, and the corn-growing soils of distant countries are adding to the store of fertility of soils in the British Isles. Country roads, exposed to the wear and tear of a comparatively new traffic, are lively at morn and eve with the rattle of vehicles conveying fresh milk from the farms to the railway stations. Most of these changes were brought about within the limits of the last third of the 19th century.
In the case of London the daily supply of a perishable article such as milk, which must be delivered to the consumer within a few hours of its production, to a population of five millions, is an undertaking of very great magnitude, especially when it is considered that only a comparatively minute proportion of the supply is produced in the metropolitan area itself. To meet the demand of the London consumer some 5000 dairies proper exist, as well as a large number of businesses where milk is sold in conjunction with other commodities. It has been computed that some 12,000 traders are engaged in the business of milkselling in the metropolis, and the number of persons employed in its distribution, &c., cannot be fewer than 25,000. The amount of capital involved is very great, and it may be mentioned that the paid-up capital of six of the principal distributing and retail dairy companies amounts to upwards of one million sterling. The most significant feature in connexion with the milk-supply of the metropolis at the beginning of the 10th century is the gradual extinction of the town "cowkeeper" - the retailer who produces the milk he sells. The facilities afforded by the railway companies, the favourable rates which have been secured for the transport of milk, and the more enlightened methods of its treatment after production, have made it possible for milk produced under more favourable conditions to be brought from considerable distances and delivered to the retailer at a price lower than that at which it has been possible to produce it in the metropolis itself. As a result, the number of milk cows in the county of London diminished from 10,000 in 1889 to 5144 in 1900, the latter, on an estimated production of 700 gallons per cow - the average production of stall-fed town cows - representing a yearly milk yield of 3,600,000 gallons. How small a proportion this is of the total supply will be gathered from the fact that the annual quantity of milk delivered in London on the Great Western line amounts to some 11,000,000 gallons, whilst the London & NorthWestern railway delivers 9,000,000, and the Midland railway at St Pancras 5,000,000, and at others of its London stations about I,000,000, making 6,000,000 in all. The London & SouthWestern railway brings upwards of 8,000,000 gallons to London, a quantity of 7,500,000 gallons is carried by the Great Northern railway, and the Great Eastern railway is responsible for 7,000,000. The London, Brighton & South Coast railway delivers i,000,000 gallons, and the South-Eastern & Chatham and the London & Tilbury railways carry approximately i,000,000 gallons between them. A large quantity of milk is also carried in by local lines from farms in the vicinity of London and delivered at the local stations, and a quantity is also brought by the Great Central railway. In addition to this, milk is taken into London by carts from farms in the neighbourhood of the metropolis. A computation of the total milk-supply of the metropolis reveals a quantity approximating to 60,000,000 gallons per annum, or rather more than a million gallons per week, which, taking 500 gallons as the average yearly production of the cows contributing to this supply, represents the yield of at least 120,000 cows. The growth of the supply of country milk to London may be judged from the figures given by Mr George Barham, chairman of the Express Dairy Co. Ltd., in an article on "The Milk Trade" contributed to Professor Sheldon's work on The Farm and Dairy. The quantities carried by the respective railways in 1889 are therein stated in gallons as: - Great Western, 9 ,000,000; London & North-Western, 7,000,000; Midland, 7,000,000; London & South-Western, 6,000,000; Great Northern, 3,000,000; Great Eastern, 3,000,000; the southern lines, 2,000,000. The increase, therefore, on these lines amounted to no less than 13,500,000 gallons per annum, or 36%. The diminished production in the metropolis itself amounted approximately only to 3,000,000 gallons, and it follows, therefore, that the consumption largely increased.
Previously to 1864 it was only possible to bring milk into London from short distances, but the introduction of the refrigerator has enabled milk to be brought from places as far removed from the metropolis as North Staffordshire, and it has even been received from Scotland. Practically the whole of the milk supplied to the metropolis is produced in England. Attempts have been made to introduce foreign milk, and in 1898 a company was formed to promote the sale of fresh milk from Normandy, but the enterprise did not succeed. The trade subsequently showed signs of reviving, owing probably to the increased cost of the home produced article, and during the winter season of 1900-1901 the largest quantity received into the kingdom in one week amounted to ro,000 gallons. Of recent years a large demand has sprung up for sterilized milk in bottles, and a considerable trade is also done in humanized milk, which is a milk preparation approximating in its chemical composition to human milk.
Estimating the average yield of milk of each country cow at 500 gallons per annum, and assuming an average of 28 cows to each farm, as many as 4300 farmers are engaged in supplying London with milk; allotting ten cows to each milker, it needs 12 battalions of 1000 men each for this work alone. Some 3500 horses are required to convey the milk from the farms to the country railway stations. The chief sources of supply are in the counties of Derby, Stafford, Leicester, Northampton, Notts, Warwick, Bucks, Oxford, Gloucester, Berks, Wilts, Hants, Dorset, Essex, and Cambridge. It is not entirely owing to the railways that London's enormous supply of milk has been rendered possible, for the milk must still have been produced in the immediate neighbourhood of the metropolis had not the method of reducing the temperature of the product by means of the refrigerator been devised. There are probably 5700 horses engaged in the delivery of milk in London, and more people are employed in this work than in milking the cows. One of the great difficulties the London dairyman has to contend with, and a cause of frequent anxiety to him, is associated with the rise and fall of the thermometer, for a movement to the extent of ten degrees one way or the other may diminish or increase the supply in an inverse ratio to the demand. Thus, at periods of extreme cold, the cows shrink in their yield of milk, while from the same cause the Londoner is demanding more, in an extra cup of coffee, &c. Again, at periods of extreme heat, which has the same effect on the cow's production as extreme cold, the customer also demands an increased quantity of milk. Ten degrees fall of temperature in the summer will result in a lessened demand and an enlarged supply - to such an extent, indeed, that a single firm has been known to have had returned by its carriers some 600 gallons in one day. In such cases the cream separator is capable of rendering invaluable assistance. To make cheese in London in large quantities and at uncertain intervals has been found to be impracticable, while to set for cream a great bulk of milk is almost equally so. But now a considerable portion of what would otherwise be lost is saved by passing the milk through separators, and churning the cream into butter.
Previously to the enormous development of the urban trade in country milk, dairy farms were in the main self-sustaining in the matter of manures and feeding-stuffs, and the cropping of arable land was governed by routine. To-day, on the contrary, many dairy farms are run at high pressure by the help of purchased materials, - corn, cake, and manure, - and the land is cropped regardless of routine and independent of courses. Such crops, moreover, are grown - white straw crops, green crops, root crops - as are deemed likely to be most needed at the time when they are ready. Green crops, - "soiling" crops, as they are termed in North America, - consisting largely of vetches or tares (held up by stalks of oat plants grown amongst them), cabbages, and in some districts green maize, are used to supplement the failing grass-lands at the fall of the year, and root crops, especially mangel, are advantageously grown for the same purpose. For winter feeding the farm is made to yield what it will in the shape of meadow and clover hay, and of course root crops of the several kinds. This provision is supplemented by the purchase of, for example, brewers' grains as a bulky food, and of oilcake and corn of many sorts as concentrated food.
Cows and Heifers
in Milk or in
Calf on 4th June.
Milk all the
say 75% of
or below the
. Milk produced
in the 52 Weeks
by 75 /o of the
Total Herd, at
in the 52 Weeks,
taking 32% of
the Total Milk
in the 52 Weeks,
taking 20% of
the Total Milk
cwt. or I
to yield 80 lb
of Butter per
to yield 220 lb
of Cheese per
Ton of Milk.
Ton of Milk.
18 9 0
British Output, Imports And Exports Of Dairy Produce Whilst the quantity of imported butter and cheese consumed in the United Kingdom from year to year can be arrived at with a tolerable degree of accuracy, it is more difficult to form an estimate of the amounts of these articles annually produced at home. Various attempts have, however, from time to time been made by competent authorities to arrive approximately at the annual output of milk, butter and cheese in the United Kingdom, and the results are given by Messrs W. Weddel & Co. in their annual Dairy Produce Review. Table XI. shows the estimates for each of the ten years 1890 to 1899, the numbers in the second column of "cows and heifers in milk or in calf" being identical with those officially recorded in the agricultural returns. In thus estimating the quantity of milk, butter and cheese produced within the United Kingdom, the "average milking life" of a cow is taken to be four years, from which it follows that on the average one-fourth of the total herd has to be renewed every year by heifers with their first calf. This leaves 75% of the total herd giving milk throughout the year. Each cow of this 75% is estimated as yielding 49 cwt., or 53 1 gallons of milk annually. It is assumed that 15% of the total milk yield is used for the calf, 32% utilized for butter [[Table Xi]]. - Estimated Annual Production of Milk, Butter and Cheese in the United Kingdom for the Ten Years ended 31st December 1899. making, 20% for cheese-making, and the remaining 33% consumed in the household as fresh milk. A ton of milk is estimated to produce 80 lb of butter or 220 lb of cheese. A gallon of milk weighs 10.33 lb (Io lb). The probable effects of each season upon the production have been taken into consideration in making these estimates, and it will be noticed that owing to the terrible drought of 1893 a reduction of 9% is made from the average. Accepting these estimates with due reservation,' it is seen that the annual production of milk varied in the decade to the extent of nearly a million tons, the exact difference between the maximum of 7,667,505 tons in 1894 and the minimum of 6,712,004 tons in 1893 being 955,501 tons. The decennial averages are 7,906,874 tons of milk, 83,992 tons of butter, and 1 4 1, 4 12 tons of cheese.
Table XII. furnishes an estimate of the total consumption of butter in the United Kingdom in each of the years 1891 to 1900. Whilst the estimated home production did not vary greatly from year to year, the imports from colonial and foreign sources underwent almost continuous increase. The ten years' average indicates 37.6% home-made, 7.3% imported colonial, and 55.1% imported foreign butter. But whereas at the beginning of the decade the proportions were 45.4% home-made, 1.5% colonial, and 53.2% foreign, at the end of the percentages were 32.8, 14.7 and 52.5 respectively. It thus appears that whilst the United Kingdom was able in 1891 to furnish nearly half of its requirements (45'4%), by 1900 it was unable to supply more than one-third (32.8%).
The rapid headway which colonial butter has made in British markets is shown by the fact that for the five years ended 30th of [[Table Xii]].-Estimated Home Production and Imports of Butter into the United Kingdom for the Ten Years ended 30th June 1900. June 1900 the import had grove n from 12,949 tons to 37,534 tons per annum, or an increase of 24,585 tons. It is during the mid-winter months that the colonial butter from Australasia arrives on the British markets, while that from Canada begins to arrive in July, and virtually ceases in the following January. The bulk of the Canadian butter reaches British markets during August, September and October; the bulk of the Australasian in December, January and February.
It appears to be demonstrated by the experience of the last decade of the 19th century that the United Kingdom is quite unable to turn out sufficient dairy produce to supply its own population. In the year ended 30th of June 1891 the total import of butter was 102,500 tons, and for the year ended 30th of June 1900 it was 170,700 tons, which shows an annual average increase in the decade of 6800 tons. This growth was on the whole very uniform, any disturbance in its regularity being attributable more to the deficient seasons in the colonies and foreign countries than to the bountiful seasons at home. Twice in the decade the import of butter from colonial sources fell off slightly from the previous year, namely, in 1896 and 1898, while only once was there any decrease in the foreign supply, and this occurred in 1900. In 1896 the colonial supply fell off by 5000 tons, principally owing to drought in Australia, but from foreign countries this deficiency was more than made good, as the increased import from these sources exceeded 16,500 tons. In 1900 the position was reversed, for while the foreign import fell away to the extent of over 8000 tons, the supply from the colonies exceeded that of 1899 by 15,000 tons, thus leaving a gain in the quantity of imported butter of nearly 7000 tons on the year. Table XII. shows that over the ten years, 1891-1900, the import of colonial butter was augmented by 34,600 tons, and that of foreign by 33,600 tons, so that the in 1 A special committee appointed by the council of the Royal Statistical Society commenced in 1901 an inquiry into the home production of milk and meat in the United Kingdom.
creased import is fairly divided between colonial and foreign sources. If, however, the last five years of the period be taken, it will be seen that the increases in the arrivals of colonial butter have far exceeded those from foreign countries. Between 1891 and 1900 the Australasian colonies increased their quota by 13,400 tons, and Canada by 11,100 tons. Of foreign countries, Denmark showed the greatest development in the supply of imported butter, which increased in the ten years by 28,678 tons. Next came Russia and Holland, with increases respectively of 7207 tons and 6589 tons. Sweden, which made steady progress from 1891 to 1896, subsequently declined, and in 1900 sent 1400 tons less than in 1891. France and Germany are rapidly falling away, and the latter country will soon cease its supply altogether. Up to 1896 it was 6000 tons annually; by 1900 it had fallen to 1850 tons. France, which in 1892 sent to the United Kingdom 29,000 tons, regularly declined, and in 1900 sent only 16,800. Among the countries sending the smaller quantities, Argentina, Belgium and Norway are all gradually increasing their supplies; but their totals are comparatively insignificant, as they together contributed in 1900 only 6400 tons out of a total foreign supply of 134,000 tons. The United States was erratic in its supplies during the decade, and up to 1900 had not made butter specially for expert to the United Kingdom, as all the other foreign countries had done. Consequently it is only when supplies from elsewhere fail that American butter is sought for by British buyers. The large amount of salt in this butter, although suitable for the American palate, prevents its becoming popular in the United Kingdom.
1 ,334,7 z6
3 66 ,944
2 94,9 62
Other countries .
3, 20 9, 1 53
3,3 8 9, 8 5 1
United States .
Other countries .
The sources whence the United Kingdom receives butter from abroad are sufficiently indicated in Table XIII., which shows the absolute quantities and the relative proportions sent by the chief contributory countries in each of the four years 1897 to 1900, the TABLE XIII.-Annual Imports of Butter into the United Kingdom, 1897-1900. * Not shown separately in the Trade and Navigation Returns prior to 1900.
order of precedence of the several countries being in accord with the figures for 1900. Denmark, as a result of the efforts made by that little kingdom to supply a sound product of uniform quality, possesses over 40% of the trade, and in the year 1900 received from the United Kingdom upwards of £8,000,000 for butter and over £3,000,000 for bacon, the raising of pigs for the consumption of separated milk being an important adjunct of the dairying industry in Denmark, where butter factories are extensively maintained on the co-operative principle. It is worthy of note that some at least of the butter received in the United Kingdom from Russia is made in Siberia, whence it is sent at the outset on a long land journey in refrigerated railway cars for shipment at a Baltic port, usually Riga. The countries not specially enumerated in Table XIII. from which butter is sent to the United Kingdom are Argentina, Belgium, Norway and Spain-these are included in "other countries." In Table XIV., relating to the estimated home production of cheese and the imports of that article, the ten years' average indicates a home-made supply of 555.3%, imports of colonial cheese 24.2%, and imports of foreign cheese 20.5%. Comparing, however, the first with the last year of the period 1891-1900, it appears that in 1891 the proportions were 58.6% home-made, 17.2% colonial and 24.2% foreign, whereas in 1900 the percentages were 50.3, 28.9 and 20.8 res p ectively. Hence the colonial contribution (chiefly Canadian) has gained ground at the expense both of the home-made and of the foreign. Again, comparing 1891 with 1900, the import of cheese into the United Kingdom increased to the extent of only 24,500 tons, so that it shows no expansion comparable with that of butter, which increased by about 70,000 tons. Simultaneously the estimated home production diminished by 17,000 tons.
13 1, 8 43
[[Table Xiv]].-Estimated Home Production and Imports of Cheese into the United Kingdom for the Ten Years ended 30th June 1900. In imported colonial cheese Canada virtually has the field to itself, for the only other colonial cheese which finds its way into the United Kingdom is from New Zealand, but the amount of this kind is comparatively insignificant, having been in 1900 only 4000 tons out of a total import of 128,600 tons. Australia, in several seasons since 1891, sent small quantities, but they are not worth quoting.
From foreign countries the decline in the export of cheese is mainly in the case of the United States, which shipped to British ports 10,000 tons less in 1900 than in 1891. France also is losing its cheese trade in British markets, and is being supplanted by Belgium. In 1891 France supplied over 3000 tons, in 1900 the import was below 2000 tons. Belgium in 1891 supplied less than moo tons, but in 1900 contributed 2600 tons. The import trade in Dutch cheese remains almost stationary. In 1891 it amounted to 15,300 tons, in 1899 it was 15,600 tons, whilst in 1900, owing to exceptionally high prices, which stimulated the manufacture, it reached 17,000 tons.
4 8 5,995
59 0 ,737
2 9 2 ,9 2 5
3 28 ,54 1
Other countries .
Over 80% of the cheese imported into the United Kingdom is derived from North America, but the bulk of the trade belongs to Canada, which supplies nearly 60% of the entire import. The value of the cheese exported from Canada to the United Kingdom in the calendar year 1900 was close upon £3,800,000. As is shown in Table XV. below, Holland, Australasia and France participate in this trade, whilst amongst the "other countries" are Germany, Italy and Russia. The cheese sent from North America and Aus [[Table Xv]].-Annual Imports of Cheese into the United Kingdom, 1897-1900. tralasia is mostly of the substantial Cheddar type, whereas soft or "fancy" cheese is the dominant feature of the French shipments. Thus, in the calendar year 1900 the average price of the cheese imported into the United Kingdom from France was 61s. per cwt., whilst the average value of the cheese from all other sources was 50s. per cwt., there being a difference of 11s. in favour of the "soft" cheese of France.
The imports of butter and margarine into the United Kingdom were not separately distinguished before the year 1886. Previous to that date they amounted, at five-year intervals, to the following aggregate quantities: 1870.1875.1880.1885.
Cwt... 1,159,210 1,467,870 2,326,305 2,401,373 For the same years the imports of cheese registered the subjoined totals: 1870.1875.1880.1885.
2 ,43 1 ,54 0
1, 2 7 6, 1 4 0
2 ,7 8 9, 2 74
1, 6 7 1 ,433
1, 1 39,743
3, 16 9,53 2
3, 10 7,573
3,37 1, 0 37
1 ,3 0 5,35 0
3,4 88 ,359
2 ,3 2 7,474
1, 2 99,97 0
3, 62 7,444
2 ,574, 8 35
1, 10 9,3 2 5
3,9 6 3, 6 5 2
4, 1 54,345
3, 20 9, 1 53
3,3 8 9, 8 5 1
Cwt.. 1,041,281 1,627,748 1,775,997 1,833,832 The imports of butter and margarine, both separately and together, and also the imports of cheese in each year from 1886 to 1900 inclusive, are set out in Table XVI., the most significant feature of which is the rapid expansion it shows in the imports of butter. In the space of nine years, between 1887 and 1896, the quantity was doubled. On the other hand, the general tendency of the imports of margarine, which have been much more uniform than those of butter, has been in the direction of decline since 1892. It is necessary, however, to point out that there has been an increase in the number of margarine factories in the United Kingdom, and in the quantity of margarine manufactured in them, during the last few years. Taking the imports of butter and margarine together, the aggregate in 1889 and also in 1900 was practically three times as large as a quarter of a century earlier, in 1875. The imports of cheese have increased at a less rapid rate than those of butter, and the quantity imported in 1900, which was a maximum, fell considerably short of twice the quantity in 1875. In 1886, 1887, 1888, 1890 and 1892 the imports of cheese exceeded those of butter, but since [[Table Xvi]].-Imports of Butter, Margarine and Cheese into the United Kingdom, 1886-1900. the last-named year those of butter have always been the larger, and 1899 were fully a million cwt. more than the cheese imports. The cheapness of imported fresh meat has probably had the effect of checking the growth of the demand for cheese amongst the industrial classes.
18 9 1
The imports of condensed milk into the United Kingdom were not separately distinguished before 1888. In that year they amounted to 352,332 cwt. The quantities imported in subsequent years were the following: The quantity thus increased continuously in each year after 1889, with the result that in 1900 the imports had grown to nearly three times the amount of those in 1889. Simultaneously, over the period 1889-1900 the annual value of the imports steadily advanced from 704,849 to £1,405,033. Thus, while the imports of condensed milk trebled in quantity, they doubled in value. A fair proportion is, however, exported, as is shown in the following statement of exports of imported condensed milk for the four years 1897 to 1900: 1897.1898.1899.1900.
Quantity,. cwt. 1 43,932133,59 6 118 ,394 164,602 Value £ 2 74,57 8 £ 2 5 6 ,5 2 5 £ 228 ,44 6 £3 0 9,60 There is also an export trade in condensed milk made in the United Kingdom. Thus, in 1892 the exports of home-made condensed milk amounted to 61,442 cwt., valued at £133,556. By 1896 the quantity had almost doubled, and reached 111,959 cwt., of the value of £224,831. In subsequent years the exports were: 1897.1898.1899.1900.
Quantity,. cwt. 154,901 178,055 18 5,749 209,447 £ 3 02 ,74 8 £343, 0 7 0 £353, $1 9 £390,559 Milk and cream (fresh or preserved other than condensed) received no separate classification in the imports until 1894, in which year the quantity imported was 161,633 gallons, followed by 126,995 gallons in 1895, and 22,776 gallons in 1896. The quantities have since been returned by weight-io,006 cwt. in 1897, 10,691 cwt. in 1898, 7859 cwt. in 1899, and 15,638 cwt. in 1900. The values of these imports in the successive years 1894 to 1900 were £21,371, £ 1 9,99 1, £ 54 8 9, £9848, £11,293, £16,068 and £26,837.
The total values of the imports of dairy produce of all kindsbutter, margarine, cheese, &c.-into the United Kingdom were, at five-year intervals between 1875 and 1890, the following: 1875.1880.1885. I 890.
11 ,9 6 5
1 4, 2 45
1 5,9 1 7
1 7, 21 4
1 7,45 0
6 3,49 1
5 0 ,453
5 1 ,5 8 3
33,3 1 9
5 6 ,39 0
18 9 8.
18 99 .
53, 1 95
Value. £ 1 3,2 1 1,592 £ 1 7, 2 3 2 ,54 8 £ 1 5, 6 3 2, 8 5 2 £19,505,798 The values in each year of the closing decade of the 19th century are set forth in Table XVII., where the totals in the last column include small sums for margarine-cheese and, since 1893, for fresh milk and cream. The aggregate value more than doubled during the last quarter of the century. The earliest year for which the value TABLE XVII.-Values of Dairy Products imported into the United Kingdom from 1891 to 190o, in Thousands of Pounds Sterling. of imported butter is separately available is 1886, when it amounted to £8,141,438. Thirteen years later this sum had more than doubled, and it is an impressive fact that in the closing year of the century the United Kingdom should have expended on imported butter alone a sum closely approximating to 172 million pounds sterling, equivalent to about three-fourths of the total amount disbursed on imported wheat grain.' The imports of margarine-that is, of margarine specifically declared to be such-into the United Kingdom are derived almost entirely from Holland. Out of a total of 920,416 cwt. imported in 1900 Holland supplied 862,154 cwt., and out of £2,464,839 expended on imported margarine in the same year Holland received £2,295,174. To the imports in the year named Holland contributed 93.7%; France, 2.9; Norway, o9; all other countries, 2.5; so that Holland possesses almost a monopoly of this trade. The quantities of imported butter, margarine and cheese that are again exported from the United Kingdom are trivial when compared with the imports, as will be seen from the following quantities and values in the three years 1898 to 190o: There is also a very small export trade in butter and cheese made in the United Kingdom, but its insignificant character is evident from the subjoined details as to quantities and values for the years named: American Dairying The development of the dairying industry in the vast region of the United States of America has been described in the official Year-Book by Major Henry E. Alvord, chief of the dairy division of the bureau of animal industry in the department of agriculture at Washington. The beginning of the 10th century found the industry upon an altogether higher level than seemed possible a few decades earlier. The milch cow herself, upon which 1 In 1901 the United Kingdom imported 3,702,810 cwt. of butter, valued at £19,297,005, both totals being the largest on record.
the whole business rests, has become almost as much a machine as a natural product, and a very different creature from the average animal of bygone days. The few homely and inconvenient implements for use in the laborious duties of the dairy have been replaced by perfected appliances, skilfully devised to accomplish their object and to lighten labour. Long rows of shining metal pans no longer adorn rural dooryards. The factory system of co-operative or concentrated manufacture has so far taken the place of home dairying that in entire states the cheese vat or press is as rare as the handloom, and in many counties it is as difficult to find a farm churn as a spinning-wheel. An illustration of the nature of the changes is afforded in the butter-making district of northern Vermont, at St Albans, the business centre of Franklin county. In 1880 the first creamery was built in this county; ten years later there were 15. Now a creamery company at St Albans has upwards of 50 skimming or separating stations distributed through Franklin and adjoining counties. To these is carried the milk from more than 30,000 cows. Farmers who possess separators at home may deliver cream which, after being inspected and tested, is accepted and credited at its actual butter value, just as other raw material is sold to mills and factories. The separated cream is conveyed by rail and waggon to the central factory, where in one room from io to 12 tons of butter are made every working day-a single churning place for a whole county ! The butter is all of standard quality, "extra creamery," and is sold on its reputation upon orders received in advance of its manufacture. The price is relatively higher than the average for the product of the same farms fifty years earlier. This is mainly due to better average quality and greater uniformity-two important advantages of the creamery system.
In one important detail dairy labour is the same as a century ago. Cows still have to be milked by hand. Although many attempts have been made, and patent after patent has been issued, no mechanical contrivance has yet proved a practical success as a substitute for the human hand in milking. Consequently, twice (or thrice) daily every day in the year, the dairy cows must be milked by manual labour. This is one of the main items of labour in dairying, and is a delicate and important duty. Assuming Io cows per hour to a milker, which implies quick work, it requires the continuous service of an army of 300,000 men, working io or 12 hours a day throughout the year, to milk the cows kept in the United States.
The business of producing milk for urban consumption, with the accompanying agencies for transportation and distribution, has grown to immense proportions. In many places the milk trade is regulated and supervised by excellent municipal ordinances, which have done much to prevent adulteration and to improve the average quality of the supply. Quite as much is, however, being done by private enterprise through large milk companies, well organized and equipped, and establishments which make a speciality of serving milk and cream of fixed quality and exceptional purity. Such efforts to furnish "certified" and "guaranteed" milk, together with general competition for the best class of trade, are doing more to raise the standard of quality and improve the service than all the legal measures. The buildings and equipment of some of these modern dairies are beyond precedent. This branch of dairying is advancing fast, upon the safe basis of care, cleanliness and better sanitary conditions.
Cheese-making has been transferred bodily from the domain of domestic arts to that of manufactures. In the middle of the 19th century about ioo,000,000 lb of cheese was made yearly in the United States, and all of it in farm dairies. At the beginning of the 20th century the annual production was about 30o,000,000 lb, and 96 or 97% of this was made in factories. Of these there are nearly 3000, but they vary greatly in capacity, and some are very small. New York and Wisconsin possess a thousand each, but the former state makes nearly twice as much cheese as the latter, whilst the two together produce three-fourths of the entire output of the country. A change is taking place in the direction of bringing a number of factories previously independent into a "combination" or under the same management. This tends to improve the quality and secure greater uniformity in the product, and often reduces cost of manufacture. More than nine-tenths of all the cheese made is of the familiar standard type, copied after the English Cheddar, but new kinds and imitations of foreign varieties are increasing. The annual export of TABLE XVIII. - Estimated Number of Cows and Quantity and Value of Dairy cheese from the United States ranges between Products in the United States in 1899. 30,000,000 and 50,000,000 lb. The consumption per capita does not exceed 3 z lb per annum, which is much less than in most European countries.
Butter differs from cheese in that it is still made much more largely on farms in the United States than in creameries. Creamery butter controls all the large markets, but this represents little more than one-third of the entire business.
Estimating the annual butter product of the entire country at 1,400,000,000 lb not much over 500,000,000 lb of this is made at the 7500 or 8000 creameries in operation. Iowa is the greatest butter-producing state, and the one in which the greater proportion is made on the factory plan. The total output of butter in this state is one-tenth of all made in the Union. The average quality of butter has materially improved since the introduction of the creamery system and the use of modern appliances. Nevertheless, a vast quantity of poor butter is made - enough to afford a large and profitable business in collecting it at country stores at grease prices or a little more, and then rendering or renovating it by patent processes. This renovated butter has been fraudulently sold to a considerable extent as the true creamery article, of which it is a fair imitation while fresh, and several states have made laws for the identification of the product and to prevent buyers from being imposed upon. No butter is imported, and the quantity exported is insignificant, although there is beginning to be a foreign demand for American butter. The home consumption is estimated at the yearly rate of 20 lb per person, which, if correct, would indicate Americans to be the greatest butter-eating people in the world. The people of the United States also consume millions of pounds every year of butter substitutes and imitations, such as oleomargarine and butterine. Most of this is believed to be butter by those who use it, and the state dairy commissioners are busily employed in carrying out the laws intended to protect purchasers from these butter frauds.
The by-products of dairying have, within recent years, been put to economical uses, in an increasing degree. For every pound of butter made there are 15 to 20 lb of skim-milk and about 3 lb of butter-milk, and for every pound of cheese nearly 9 lb of whey. Up to 1889 or 1890 enormous quantities of skim-milk and buttermilk from the creameries and of whey from the cheese factories were entirely wasted. At farm dairies these by-products are generally used to advantage in feeding animals, but at the factories - especially at the seasons of greatest milk supply - this most desirable method of utilization is to a great extent impracticable. In many places new branches have been instituted for the making of sugar-of-milk and other commercial products from whey, and for the utilization of skim-milk in various ways. The albumin of the latter is extracted for use with food products and in the arts. The casein is desiccated and prepared as a substitute for eggs in baking, as the basis of an enamel paint, and as a substitute for glue in paper-sizing. It has also been proposed to solidify it to make buttons, combs, brush-backs, electrical insulators and similar articles.
No census of cows in the United States was taken until the year 1840, but they have been enumerated in each subsequent decennial census. From 23 to 27 cows to every loo of the population were required to keep the country supplied with milk, butter and cheese, and provide for the export of dairy products. The export trade, though it has fluctuated considerably, has never exceeded the produce of 500,000 cows. At the close of the 19th century it was estimated that there was one milch cow in the United States for every four persons, making the number of cows about 17,500,000. They are, however, very unevenly distributed, being largely concentrated in the great dairy states, Iowa leading with 1,500,000 cows, and being followed closely by New York. In the middle and eastern states the milk product goes very largely to the supply of the numer dropped yearly, the annual aggregate value of the produce of the dairy cows exceeds $500,000,000, or is more than one hundred million pounds sterling. Accepting these estimates as conservative, they show that the commercial importance of the dairy industry of the United States is such as to justify all reasonable provisions for guarding its interests. (W. FR.)
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