Dysteleology - Encyclopedia

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DYSTELEOLOGY, a modern word invented by Haeckel (Evolution of Man) for the doctrine of purposelessness, as opposed to the philosophical doctrine of design (Teleology) .

DZiJNGARIA, Dsongaria, or Jungaria, a former Mongolian kingdom of Central Asia, raised to its highest pitch by Kaldan or Bushtu Khan in the latter half of the 17th century, but completely destroyed by Chinese invasion about 1757-1759. It has played an important part in the history of Mongolia and the great migrations of Mongolian stems westward. Now its territory belongs partly to the Chinese empire (east Turkestan and north-western Mongolia) and partly to Russian Turkestan (provinces of Semiryechensk and Semipalatinsk). It derived its name from the Dsongars, or Songars, who were so called because they formed the left wing (dson, left; gar, hand) of the Mongolian army. Its widest limit included Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, the whole region of the Tien Shan, or Tian-shan, Mountains, and in short the greater proportion of that part of Central Asia which extends from 35° to 50 N. and from 72° to 97° E. The name, however, is more properly applied only to the present Chinese province of Tien Shan-pei-lu and the country watered by the Ili. As a political or geographical term it has practically disappeared from the map; but the range of mountains stretching north-east along the southern frontier of the Land of the Seven Streams, as the district to the south-east of the Balkhash Lake is called, preserves the name of Dzungarian Range.

The fifth symbol in the English alphabet occupies also the same position in Phoenician and in the other alphabets descended from Phoenician. As the Semitic alphabet did not represent vowels, E was originally an aspirate. Its earliest form, while writing is still from right to left, is the upright being continued some distance below the lowest of the cross-strokes. In some of the Greek alphabets it appears as with the upright prolonged at both top and bottom, but it soon took the form with which we are familiar, though in the earlier examples of this form the cross-strokes are not horizontal but drop at an angle, F. In Corinth and places under its early influence like Megara, or colonized from it like Corcyra, the symbol for e takes the form or B, while at Sicyon in the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. it is represented by Z. In early Latin it was sometimes represented by two perpendicular strokes of equal length, I I .

In the earliest Greek inscriptions and always in Latin the symbol E represented both the short and the long e-sound. In Greek also it was often used for the close long sound which arose either by contraction of two short e-sounds or by the loss of a consonant, after a short e-sound, as in 4LAELTE, "you love," for 4LAEETe, and 4aavos, " bright," out of an earlier Oacavos. The Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor, who had altogether lost the aspirate, were the first to use the symbol H for the long e-sound, and in official documents at Athens down to 403 B.C., when the Greek alphabet as still known was adopted by the state, E represented n and the sound arising by contraction or consonant loss as mentioned above which henceforth was written with two symbols, and being really a single sound is known as the "spurious diphthong." There were some minor distinctions in usage of the symbols E and H which need not here be given in detail. The ancient Greek name was Er, not Epsilon as popularly supposed; the names of the Greek letters are given from Kallias, an earlier contemporary of Euripides, in Athenaeus x. p. 453 d.

In Greek the short e-sound to which E was ultimately limited was a close sound inclining more towards i than a; hence the representation of the contraction of by Its value in Latin was exactly the opposite, the Latin short e being open, and the long close. In English there has been a gradual narrowing of the long vowels, a becoming approximately ei and e becoming i (Sweet, History of English Sounds, §§ 781, 817 ff. 2nd ed.). In languages where the diphthong ai has become a monophthong, the resulting sound is some variety of long e. Often the gradual assimilation can be traced through the intermediate stage of ae to e, as in the Old Latin aedilis, which in classical Latin is aedilis, and in medieval MSS. edilis. The variety of spelling in English for the long and short e- sounds is conveniently illustrated in Miss Soames's Introduction to the Study of Phonetics, pp. 16 and 20. (P. Gt.)

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