ERNST KUNO BERTHOLD FISCHER (1824-1907), German philosopher, was born at Sandewalde in Silesia, on the 23rd of July 1824. After studying philosophy at Leipzig and Halle, he became a privat-docent at Heidelberg in 1850. The Baden government in 1853 laid an embargo on his teaching owing to ' For a brief review of the pharmacology of purin derivatives see F. Francis and J. M. Fortescue-Brinkdale, The Chemical Basis of Pharmacology (1908).
his Liberal ideas, but the effect of this was to rouse considerable sympathy for his views, and in 1856 he obtained a professorship at Jena, where he soon acquired great influence by the dignity of his personal character. In 1872, on Zeller's removal to Berlin, Fischer succeeded him as professor of philosophy and the history of modern German literature at Heidelberg, where he died on the 4th of July '907. His part in philosophy was that of historian and commentator, for which he was especially qualified by his remarkable clearness of exposition; his point of view is in the main Hegelian. His Geschichte der neuern Philosophie (1852-1893, new ed. 1897) is perhaps the most accredited modern book of its kind, and he made valuable contributions to the study of Kant, Bacon, Shakespeare, Goethe, Spinoza, Lessing, Schiller and Schopenhauer.
Some of his numerous works have been translated into English: Francis Bacon of Verulam, by J. Oxenford (1857); The Life and Character of Benedict Spinoza, by Frida Schmidt (1882); A Commentary on Kant's Kritik of Pure Reason, by J. P. Mahaffy (1866); Descartes and his School, by J. P. Gordy (1887); A Critique of Kant, by W. S. Hough (1888); see also H. Falkenheim, Kuno Fischer and die litterar-historische Methode (1892); and bibliography in J. M. Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (1905).
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