FREDRIKSHALD (FREDERIKSHALD, FRIEDRICHSHALL), a seaport and garrison town of Norway, in Smaalenene amt (county), 85 m. by rail S. by E. of Christiania. Pop. (1900) 11,948. It is picturesquely situated on both banks of the Tistedal river at its outflow to the Ide fjord, surrounded by several rocky eminences. The chief of these is occupied by the famous fortress Fredriksten, protected on three sides by precipices founded by Frederick III. (1661), and mainly showing, in its present form, the works of Frederick V. (1766) and Christian VII. (1808). Between it and the smaller GyldenlOve fort a monument marks the spot where Charles XII. was shot in the trenches while besieging the town (1718). The siege, which was then raised, is further commemorated by a monument to the brave defence of the brothers Peter and Hans Kolbjornsen. Fredrikshald is close to the Swedish frontier, and had previously (1660) withstood invasion, after which its name was changed from Halden to the present form in 1665 in honour of Frederick III. The town was almost totally destroyed by fire in 1759 and 1826. The castle surrendered to the Swedish crown prince Bernadotte in 1814, and its capture was speedily followed by the conquest of the kingdom and its union with Sweden. Fredrikshald is one of the principal ports of the kingdom for the export of timber. Marble of very fine quality and grain is extensively quarried and exported for architectural ornamentation and for furniture-making. Wood-pulp is also exported. The industries embrace granite quarries, wood-pulp factories, and factories for sugar, tobacco, curtains, travelling-bags, boots, &c. There are railway communications with Gothenburg and all parts of Sweden and regular coastal and steamer services.
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