GAETANI, or Caetani, the name of the oldest of the Roman princely families which played a great part in the history of the city and of the papacy. The Gaetani are of Longobard origin, and the founder of the house is said to be one Dominus Constantinus Cagetanus, who flourished in the 10th century, but the family had no great importance until the election of Benedetto Gaetani to the papacy as Boniface VIII. in 12 94, when they at once became the most notable in the city. The pope conferred on them the fiefs of Sermoneta, Bassiano, Ninfa and San Donato (1297-1300), and the marquisate of Ancona in 1300, while Charles II. of Anjou created the pope's brother count of Caserta. Giordano Loffredo Gaetani by his marriage with Giovanna dell' Aquila, heiress of the counts of Fondi and Traetto, in 1297 added the name of Aquila to his own, and his grandson Giacomo acquired the lordships of Piedimonte and Gioia. The Gaetani proved brave warriors and formed a bodyguard to protect Boniface VIII. from his many foes. During the 14th and 15th centuries their feuds with the Colonna caused frequent disturbances in Rome and the Campagna, sometimes amounting to civil war. They also played an important role as Neapolitan nobles. In 1 Soo Alexander VI., in his attempt to crush the great Roman feudal nobility, confiscated the Gaetani fiefs and gave them to his daughter Lucrezia Borgia; but they afterwards regained them.
At present there are two lines of Gaetani: (I) Gaetani, princes of Teano and dukes of Sermoneta, founded by Giacobello Gaetani, whose grandson, Guglielmo Gaetani, was granted the duchy of Sermoneta by Pius III. in 1503, the marquisate of Cisterna being conferred on the family by Sixtus V. in 1585. In 1642, Francesco, the 7th duke of Sermoneta, acquired by marriage the county of Caserta, which was exchanged for the principality of Teano in 1750. The present head of the house, Onorato Gaetani, 14th duke of Sermoneta, 4th prince of Teano, duke of San Marco, marquis of Cisterna, &c., is a senator of the kingdom of Italy, and was minister for foreign affairs for a short time. (2) Gaetani dell' Aquila d'Aragona, princes of Piedimonte, and dukes of Laurenzana, founded by Onorato Gaetani dell' Aquila, count of Fondi, Traetto, Alife and Morcone, lord of Piedimonte and Gioia, in 1454. The additional surname of Aragona was assumed after the marriage of Onorato Gaetani, duke of Traetto (d. 1529), with Lucrezia of Aragon, natural daughter of King Ferdinand I. of Naples. The duchy of Laurenzana, in the kingdom of Naples, was acquired by Alfonso Gaetani by his marriage in 1606 with Giulia di Ruggiero, duchess of Laurenzana. The lordship of Piedimonte was raised to a principality in 1715. The present (1908) head of the house is Nicola Gaetani dell' Aquila d'Aragona (b. 1857), 7th prince of Piedimonte and 12th duke of Laurenzana.
See A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Berlin, 1868); F. Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Stuttgart, 1872); Almanach de Gotha (1907 and 1908).
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