GANGPUR, a tributary state of Orissa, Bengal, included until 1905 among the Chota Nagpur States. It is bounded N. by Ranchi district, E. by the Singhbhum district, S. by Sambalpur and Bamra, and W. by Raigarh in the Central Provinces. The country is for the most part an undulating plain, broken by detached ranges of hills, one of which, the Mahavira range, possesses a very remarkable appearance, springing abruptly from the plain in an irregular wall of tilted and disrupted rock, with two flanking peaks. The rivers are the Ib and the Brahmani, formed here by the union of the Sankh and the South Koel, both navigable by canoes. The Ib was formerly famous on account of diamonds found in its bed, and its sands are still washed for gold. One of the largest coalfields in India extends into the state, and iron ore is also found. Jungle products - lac, silk cocoons, catechu and resin, which are exported; wild animals - bisons, buffaloes, tigers, leopards, hyenas, wolves, jackals, wild dogs and many sorts of deer. Area, 2492 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 238,896; estimated revenue, £16,000.
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