JOSEPH SIMON GALLIENI (1849-), French soldier and colonial administrator, was born at Saint-Beat, in the department of Haute-Garonne, on the 24th of April 1849. He left the military academy of Saint-Cyr in July 1870 as a second lieutenant in the Marines, becoming lieutenant in 1873 and captain in 1878. He saw service in the Franco-German War, and between 1877 and 1881 took an important part in the explorations and military expeditions by which the French dominion was extended in the basin of the upper Niger. He rendered a particularly valuable service by obtaining, in March 1881, a treaty from Ahmadu, almany of Segu, giving the French exclusive rights of commerce on the upper Niger. For this he received the gold medal of the Societe de Geographie. From 1883 to 1886 Gallieni was stationed in Martinique. On the 24th of June 1886 he attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and on the 10th of December was nominated governor of Upper Senegal. He obtained several successes against Ahmadu in 1887, and compelled Samory to agree to a treaty by which he abandoned the left bank of the Niger (see Senegal: History). In connexion with his service in West Africa, Gallieni published two works - Mission d'exploration du Haut-Niger,1879-1881(Paris, 1885), and Deux Campagnes au Sudan francais (Paris, 1891) - which, besides possessing great narrative interest, give information of considerable value in regard to the resources and topography of the country. In 1888 Gallieni was made an officer of the Legion of Honour. In 1891 he attained the rank of colonel, and from 1893 to 1895 he served in Tongking, commanding the second military division of the territory. In 1899 he published his experiences in Trois Colonnes au Tonkin. In 1896 Madagascar was made a French colony, and Gallieni was appointed resident-general (a title changed in 1897 to governorgeneral) and commander-in-chief. Under the weak administration of his predecessor a widespread revolt had broken out against the French. By a vigorous military system Gallieni succeeded in completing the subjugation of the island. He also turned his attention to the destruction of the political supremacy of the Hovas and the restoration of the autonomy of the other tribes. The execution of the queen's uncle, Ratsimamanga, and of Rainandrianampandry, the minister of the interior, in October 1896, and the exile of Queen Ranavalo III. herself in 1897, on the charge of fomenting rebellion, broke up the Hova hegemony, and made an end of Hova intrigues against French rule. The task of government was one of considerable difficulty. The application of the French customs and other like measures, disastrous to British and American trade, were matters for which Gallieni was not wholly responsible. His policy was directed to the development of the economic resources of the island and was conciliatory towards the non-French European population. He also secured for the Protestants religious liberty. In 1899 he published a Rapport d'ensemble sur la situation generale de Madagascar. In 1905, when he resigned the governorship, Madagascar enjoyed peace and a considerable measure of prosperity. In 1906 General Gallieni was appointed to command the XIV. army corps and military government of Lyons. He reviewed the results of his Madagascar administration in a book entitled Neuf Ans a Madagascar (Paris, 1908).
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