INVERCARGILL, the chief town of Southland county, South Island, New Zealand, 139 m. by rail S.W. by W. from Dunedin. Pop. (1906) 7299. It lies on a deep estuary of the south coast named New River Harbour, which receives several streams famous for trout-fishing. It is the centre of the large grazing and farming district of Southland; and has a number of factories, including breweries, foundries, woollen mills and timber-works. The plan of the town is rectangular, with wide streets; and there is a fine open reserve. The harbour is deep and well sheltered, but the greater part of the trade passes through the neighbouring Bluff Harbour, on which is Campbelltown, 17 m. S. of Invercargill by rail. Bluff Harbour is the port of call and departure for steamers for Melbourne and Hobart. Exports are wool, preserved meat and timber. The district of Southland was surveyed in 1841, but was reported unfavourable, and settlement was delayed till 1857. Southland was a separate province between 1860 and 1870, but, failing financially as such, rejoined the parent province of Otago. Invercargill became a municipality in 1871, and there are five suburban municipalities. The town is the regular starting-point of a journey to the famous lakes Wakatipu and Te Anau, which are approached by rail.
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