JULIUS I., pope from 337 to 352, was chosen as successor of Marcus after the Roman see had been vacant four months. He is chiefly known by the part which he took in the Arian controversy. After the Eusebians had, at a synod held in Antioch, renewed their deposition of Athanasius they resolved to send delegates to Constans, emperor of the West, and also to Julius, setting forth the grounds on which they had proceeded. The latter, after expressing an opinion favourable to Athanasius, adroitly invited both parties to lay the case before a synod to be presided over by himself. This proposal, however, the Eastern bishops declined to accept. On his second banishment from Alexandria, Athanasius came to Rome, and was recognized as a regular bishop by the synod held in 340. It was through the influence of Julius that, at a later date, the council of Sardica in Illyria was held, which was attended only by seventy-six Eastern bishops, who speedily withdrew to Philippopolis and deposed Julius, along with Athanasius and others. The Western bishops who remained confirmed the previous decisions of the Roman synod; and by its 3rd, 4th and 5th decrees relating to the rights of revision, the council of Sardica endeavoured to settle the procedure of ecclesiastical appeals. Julius on his death in April 35 2 was succeeded by Liberius. (L. D.*)
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