NATIONAL ANTHEMS OR HYMNS. The selection of some particular songs, words and music, as the formal expression of national patriotism, is a comparatively modern development of ceremonial usage. In Europe the chief national anthems are: The United Kingdom: " God save the king" (see below); France: " The Marseillaise," by Rouget de Lisle; Germany: " Heil dir im Siegerkranz," words by Balthasar Gerhard Schumacher, music of "God save the King"; Switzerland: " Rufst du, mein Vaterland," music of "God save the King"; Italy: the "Royal March" by G. Gabetti; Austria: " Gott erhalte unsern Kaiser," words by L. L. Haschka, music by Haydn; Hungary: " Isten ald meg a Magyart"; Belgium: " La Braban90nne," by F. Campenhout; Holland: " Wien Nierlansch"; Denmark: "Heil dir, dem Liebenden," words by H. Harries, music of "God save the King," and "King Kristian stod ved hojen mast," words by Ewald, music by Hartman; Sweden: "Ur Svenska hjertans"; Russia: " Bozhe Zaria chrany," words by J. J. Canas, music by D. Jenko; Rumania: " Traeasca Regale," words by V. Alexandri, music by E. A. Hiibsch; Spain: " Himno de Riego," music by Herta. In the United States, the "Star Spangled Banner" (1814; words by F. S. Key, music by S. Smith) and "Hail Columbia" (1798; words by Joseph Hopkinson, music by Fyles) share the duties of a national anthem, while the tune of "God save the King" is sung to words beginning "My country, 'tis of thee." The most celebrated of all national anthems is the English "God save the King," which is said to have been first sung as his own composition by Henry Carey in 1740; and a version was assigned by W. Chappell (Popular Music) to the Harmonia Anglicana of 1742 or 1743, but no copy exists and this is now doubted. Words and music were printed in the Gentleman's Magazine for October 1745. There has been much controversy as to the authorship, which is complicated by the fact that earlier forms of the air and the words are recorded. Such are an "Ayre" of 1619, attributed to John Bull, who has long been credited with the origin of the anthem; the Scottish carol, "Remember, 0 thou man," in Ravenscroft's Melismata, 1611; the ballad "Franklin }s fled away" (printed 1669; and a piece in Purcell's Choice Collection for the Harpsichord (1696). The words or part of them are also found in various forms from the 16th century. The question was discussed in Richard Clarke's Account of the National Anthem (1822), and has been reinvestigated by Dr W. H. Cummings in his God save the King (1902). Carey and Bull, in the general opinion of musical historians, divide the credit; but in his Minstrelsy of England (1901) Frank Kidson introduced a new claimant, James Oswald, a Scotsman who settled in London in 1742, and worked for John Simpson, the publisher of the early copies of God save the King, and who became chamber composer to George III. What appears to be certain is that 1745 is the earliest date assignable to the substantial national anthem as we know it, and that both words and music had been evolved out of earlier forms. Bull's is the earliest form of the air; Carey's claim to the remodelling of the anthem rests on an unauthoritative tradition; and, on general probabilities, Oswald is a strong candidate. The tune was adopted by Germany and by Denmark before the end of the 18th century.
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