New Brunswick - Encyclopedia




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"NEW BRUNSWICK 19.464). - The pop. of this Canadian province, which was 351,889 in 1911, increases but slowly. The former exodus to the United States and the western provinces of Canada has been largely arrested. The only towns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 1911 were Fredericton, the capital, 8,000; Chatham, 5,500; St. John, the chief shipping and commercial centre, 63,000; and Moncton, a large railway centre, 25,000.

The province sends io senators and II members of the House of Commons to the Federal Parliament. The Legislative Assembly consists of 48 members, and the executive of seven.

The various grades of schools are supported by legislative grants supplemented by local taxation. Schools in the cities are managed by boards of trustees, one half appointed by the Government and one half by the city corporation. School attendance has varied but little since lobo: in 1917 about 65,000 pupils were enrolled, with about 2,000 teachers. The three degree-giving universities are the old university of New Brunswick at Fredericton; Mount Allison University at Sackville, and St. Joseph's College at St. Joseph.

Industries

It is estimated that there are about 22,000 sq. m. of arable land in New Brunswick the greater part of which has not I been brought into cultivation. In fact, the actual area under cultivation had been for some time slowly decreasing until the outbreak of the World War. Wheat-growing, which had become unprofitable, was then stimulated by prices and the demand for production for overseas consumption. Other agricultural products were stimulated in the same way, and a gratifying increase was noted for several years. Over 7,000 sq.m. had been taken up in 1921, of which 2,260 sq.m. were under crop. The production of wheat increased from 267,000 bus. in 1915 to 464,400 in 1920, with an average for the five years of 452,850; oats from 5,600,000 bus. to 9,118,000 with an average of 6,437,200 bus.; potatoes from 5,772,000 bus. to 15,510,000 bus., with an average of over 8,000,000 bus.; hay from 791,000 tons to 871,700 tons, with an average of 854,400 tons. Over 6,000 ac. in the Blue Bell tract were for sale in 1921, and along the Bay of Fundy are very large areas of reclaimed marsh land famed for their productivity year after year without the use of fertilizers. There are also extensive areas of naturally suitable land for production of wool and mutton, so that there was altogether room for large agricultural development. Dairying is encouraged by the Legislature. Cheese and butter factories are scattered throughout the province. A maritime dairy school is maintained at Truro, and cheese and butter boards have their headquarters at Sussex.

Of the 7,500 ac. forest land still in the hands of the Crown, over 13% supports merchantable timber, of which about 40% is a hardwood stand. The value of the lumber cut in 1918 was $12,190,000. The total pulp production was 66,619 tons, valued at over $5,000,000.

The value of the fisheries in 1919 was approximately $5,000,000, a decrease of $1,320,000 as compared with the previous year.

Though not a manufacturing province in the sense of Ontario and Quebec, New Brunswick has made very steady progress. In 1900 the capital invested was $20,750,000, and in 1918 $74,500,000, with an increase of output from $21,000,000 to $68,333,000. New Brunswick has 300,000 H.P. available, of which only about 15,000 had in 1921 been developed. At Grand Falls is the largest undeveloped waterpower in eastern Canada.

Communications

The roads have been greatly improved, the province taking advantage of the appropriations of the Dominion Government in connexion with the general movement in Canada for good roads. The Inter-colonial Railway, a part of the Canadian National Railways system, is still the main line of communication.

The Canadian Pacific also runs through the province, with a terminus at St. John, and the National Transcontinental from Winnipeg has its terminus at Moncton. By means of the C.P.R. and Maine Central the province has communication with the United States. Various lines of steamers run, chiefly from St. John, to American and Canadian ports. St. John is also one of the Atlantic ports for transatlantic lines of steamers. (W. L. G.*)

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