NOVOCHERKASSK, a town of Russia, capital of the Don Cossacks territory, situated on a hill 400 ft. above the plain, at the confluence of the Don with the Aksai, 45 m. from the Sea of Azov, and 32 m. by rail N.E. from Rostov. Pop. (1897) 52,005. It was founded in 1805, when the inhabitants of the Cherkassk stanitsa (now Old Cherkassk) were compelled to leave their abodes on the banks of the Don on account of the frequent inundations. The town is an archiepiscopal see of the Orthodox Greek Church, and possesses a cathedral (1904), a museum, the palace of the ataman (chief) of the Cossacks, and monuments to M. I. Platov (a Cossack chief) and T. Yermak (1904), the conqueror of West Siberia. Wide suburbs extend to the S.W., and the right bank of the Aksai is dotted with the villas of the Cossack officials. Manufactures make slow progress. An active trade is carried on in corn, wine and timber (exports), and manufactures and grocery wares (imports).
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