"ADOLPH OCHS S. (1858-), American newspaper proprietor, was born in Cincinnati March 12 1858, of Jewish parentage. His father, who had left Bavaria for the United States in 1846, settled in 1865 with his family in Knoxville, Tenn., where the son studied in the public schools and during his spare time delivered newspapers. At the age of 15 he became a printer's devil on a Knoxville paper, and advanced so rapidly that in 1878 he gained control of the reorganized Chattanooga Times, which soon assumed a high position among the papers of the South. The following year he founded a commercial paper called The Tradesman. He was one of the founders of the Southern Associated Press and served as president. In 1896 he obtained control of The New York Times, then in financial difficulties and with circulation greatly diminished. He formed the New York Times Co., placed the paper on a strong financial foundation, and became the majority stockholder. With a daily issue on Aug. 18 1896 of 18,900 (of which over half was returned unsold), the circulation increased rapidly, reaching an average of 352,500 in 1921. Annual receipts exceeded $15,000,000, probably equalling those of any other American paper. On Aug. 18 1921, the 25th anniversary of reorganization, the staff of The New York Times numbered 1,885. It was classed as an independent Democratic publication, and consistently opposed William Jennings Bryan in his presidential campaigns. By its fairness in the presentation of news, editorial moderation and ample foreign service, it secured a high place in American journalism, becoming widely read and influential throughout the country. Beginning with 1896 there was issued weekly a supplement eventually called The New York Times Book Review and Magazine. Gradually other auxiliary publications were added: The Annalist, a financial review appearing on Mondays; The Times Mid-Week Pictorial on Thursdays; Current History Magazine, a monthly, started during the World War. The New York Times Index, started in 1913 and published quarterly, forms an invaluable guide to contemporary events, to be compared only with the similar Index to The Times of London. In 1901 Mr. Ochs became proprietor and editor of the Philadelphia Times, later merged in the Philadelphia Public Ledger, of which he was sole owner from 1902-12, when he sold it to Cyrus. W. K. Curtis.
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