Orange, New Jersey - Encyclopedia

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ORANGE, a city of Essex county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in the N.E. part of the state, about 14 m. W. of New York City. Pop. (1890) 18,844, (1900) 24,141, of whom 6598 were foreignborn and 1903 were negroes, (1910 census) 29,630. It is served by the Morris & Essex Division of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railroad and by the Orange branch (of which it is a terminus) of the Erie railroad, and is connected with Newark, South Orange and Bloomfield by electric lines. The, city lies at the base of the eastern slope of the first Watchung, or Orange, Mountain, and is primarily a residential suburb of New York and Newark; with East Orange, West Orange and South Orange it constitutes virtually a single community, popularly known as " the Oranges." The city has a good public school system and various private schools, including the DearbornMorgan School (for girls) and the Carteret Academy (for boys). Of historical interest is the First Presbyterian Church, erected in 1813, 'the third structure used by this church organization, whose history dates back to 1718. The value of the factory products of Orange increased from $2,995,688 in 1900 to $6,150,635 in 1905, or 105.3%, and the capital invested in manufacturing from $1,359,523 in 1900 to $3,441,183 in 1905, or 153.1%. Of the total product-value in 1905, $2,311,614 was the value of felt hats manufactured. Among other manufactures are beer, pharmaceutical supplies and lawn mowers. The city owns and operates its water-works and electric lighting plant. Settlements were made in or near the limits of the present city soon after the founding of Newark, in 1666, and, on account of the mountainous ridge in this region, they were generally referred to collectively as " Newark Mountain." As a disagreement soon arose between the people of Newark and those of " the mountain" on questions of church administration, the latter in 1718 severed their connexion with the church at Newark and formed an independent congregation, the" Mountain Society." The church, which was known also as " The Church of the New Ark Mountains," was at first Congregational, but in 1748 became Presbyterian. In 1782 occurs the earliest reference to the neighbourhood as " Orange Dale," and two years later it is sometimes referred to as " Orange." In 1806 the legislature incorporated the township of Orange. Parts of its territory were included in South Orange and Fairmount (now West Orange) in 1861 and 1862 respectively, and in 1863 East Orange was created out of part of Orange. Orange was incorporated as a town in 1860 and was chartered as a city in 1872.

See H. Whittemore, The Founders and Builders of the Oranges (Newark, 1896); J. H. Condit, Early Records of the Township of Orange (1807-1845) (Orange, 1897); and S. Wickes, History of the Oranges (1666-1806), (Newark, 1892).

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