Oranienbaum - Encyclopedia

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ORANIENBAUM, a town of European Russia, in the government of St Petersburg, lying Ioo ft. above the sea on the south passing of the education act in the middle of 1908 versy until the absorption of the colony into the union, General Hertzog so administered the provisions of the act regarding the media of instruction as to compel every European child to receive instruction in every subject partly in the medium of Dutch. This policy of compulsory bilingualism was persisted in despite the vehement protests of the English-speaking community, and of the desire of many Dutch burghers that the medium of instruction for their children should be English. Attempts to adjust the difficulty were made and a conference on the subject was held at Bloemfontein in November 1909. It was fruitless, and in March 1910 Mr Hugh Gunn (director of education since 1904) resigned.' The action of General Hertzog had the support of his colleagues and of Mr Steyn and kept alive the racial spirit. Failing to obtain redress the Englishspeaking section of the community proceeded to open separate schools, the terms of the act of union leaving the management of elementary education to the provincial council.

Authorities. - A. H. Keane, The Boer States: Land and People (1900); The Report on the 1904 census (Bloemfontein, 1906); The Statistical Year Book (Bloemfontein) and other official publications; W. S. Johnson, Orangia (1906), a good elementary geography; Precis of Information. Orange Free State and Griqualand West (War Office, 1878); D. Aitton, "De Oranje Vrijstaat," Tijds. K. Ned. Aard. Genoots. Amsterdam, vol. xvii. (1900); H. Kloessel, Die Siidafrikanischen Republiken (Leipzig, 1888). For a good early account of the country see Sir W. Cornwallis Harris, Narrative of an Expedition into Southern Africa during 1836-37 (Bombay, 1838). For history see, in addition to the British, Cape and Orange 1 See Mr Gunn's pamphlet, The Language Question in the Orange River Colony, 1902-1910. coast of the Gulf of Finland, opposite Kronstadt. Pop. (1897) 5333. It is well known for its imperial palace and as a summer resort for the inhabitants of St Petersburg, from which it is 25 m. W. by rail. In 1714 Menshikov, to whom the site was presented by Peter the Great, erected for himself the country-seat of Oranienbaum; but confiscated, like the rest of his estates, in 1727, it became an imperial residence. In 1743 the empress Elizabeth assigned the place to Peter III., who built there a castle, Peterstadt (now destroyed), for his Holstein soldiers.

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