ORTLER, the highest point (12,802 ft.) in Tirol, and so in the whole of the Eastern Alps. It is a great snow-clad mass, which rises E. of the Stelvio Pass, and a little S. of the upper valley of the Adige (whence it is very conspicuous) between the valleys of Trafoi (N.W.) and of Sulden (N.E.). It was long considered to be wholly inaccessible, but was first conquered in 1804 by three Tirolese peasants, of whom the chief was Josef Pichler. The first traveller to make the climb was Herr Gebhard in 1805 (sixth ascent). In 1826 Herr Schebelka, and in 1834 P. K. T. Thurwieser attained the summit, but it was only after the discovery of easier routes in 1864 by F. F. Tuckett, E. N. and H. E. Buxton, and in 1865 by Herr E. von Mojsisovics that the expedition became popular. Many routes to the summit are now known, but that usually taken (from the Payer Club hut, easily accessible from either Sulden or Trafoi) from the north is daily traversed in summer and offers no difficulties to moderately experienced walkers. (W. A. B. C.)
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