"VITTORIO EMANUELE ORLANDO (1860-), Italian statesman, was born in 1860. Becoming a barrister and a law professor, he was first elected deputy for Partinico in Sicily in 1898. He was Minister of Education in the Giolitti-Tittoni Cabinet of 1903-5, and of Justice in the Giolitti Cabinet of 1907-9, and again under Salandra in March 1914. Although a Giolittian at heart, he was in favour of intervention in the World War at a time when many other politicians still hesitated and most of his party were decided neutralists. On the resignation of the Salandra Cabinet in July 1916 he remained in office under Boselli as Minister of the Interior. His administration of that department left much to be desired, as he permitted the Socialists to conduct a defeatist propaganda which was largely responsible for Caporetto. But on the resignation of Boselli, Oct. 29 1917, Orlando was entrusted with the formation of the new Cabinet, and the course of events imposed on him a somewhat more energetic internal policy. He was Prime Minister at the time of the peace treaty, but his Cabinet fell June 20 1919, owing to his failure to secure a settlement in Paris. On Dec. 3 he was elected President of the Chamber.
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