"PIERRE XAVIER EMMANUEL RUFFEY (1851-), French general, was born at Dijon (Cote d'Or) on March 19 1851. He entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 1871 and two years later was appointed sous-lieutenant in the artillery. He became a lieutenant in 1875 and a captain in 1878. In 1879 he went through the staff course at the Ecole de Guerre, to which he later returned as professor of artillery. He was promoted major in 1891, lieutenant-colonel in 1897 and colonel in 1901. He served with the expedition to Madagascar, and in 1905 was made a general of brigade. In 1910 he was promoted general of division and in 1913 he was made a commander in the Legion of Honour. On the outbreak of war in Aug. 1914 he commanded the III. Army, but a month later, after the Longwy battles, he was removed from the command of his army, being succeeded by Sarrail. Thereafter he was not employed in an active command at the front, and in Jan. 1917, having already attained the age of retirement, he ceased to hold any appointment. General Ruffey, during the last years before the World War, had persistently advocated the increased employment of heavy artillery with the field army, and it was perhaps due to him more than to any other leading personality that the French Army was able to adapt itself so readily to the use of the new arm.
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