RHAMNUS PURSHIANA, or Californian buckthorn, a plant the bark of which is used in medicine under the name of cascara sagrada. An active principle anthra-gluco-sagradin has been isolated by Tschirch. The preparations of it contained in the British pharmacopoeia are: (1) Extractum cascarae sagradae (extractum rhamni purshianae, United States pharmacopoeia), dose 2 to 8 grs.; (2) Extractum cascarae sagradae liquidum, dose to i fl. dr. From the latter is prepared syrupus cascarae aroinaticus, dose a to 2 fl. dr. In this preparation the bitter taste of the cascara sagrada is disguised by the addition of tincture of orange, cinnamon water and syrup. In the United States pharmacopoeial preparation Fluid extractum rhamni purshianae aromaticum, does io to 30 minims, the taste is similarly obscured. Cascara sagrada is one of the most useful of all laxatives, since not only does it empty the bowel of faecal matter, but it acts as a tonic to the intestine and tends to prevent future constipation. It is largely used in the treatment of chronic constipation. A single full dose of the liquid extract may be taken at bedtime, or divided doses, io to 15 minims, three times a day before meals. When a strong purgative is required some drug other than cascara sagrada should he employed, but its use in gradually decreasing doses is indicated after evacuation has been effected by podophyllin or rhubarb. Cascara sagrada is the principal constituent of most of the proprietary laxatives on the market.
'Rhampsinitus, a Greek corruption of Ra-messu-pa-neter, the popular name of Rameses III., king of Egypt of the XXth Dynasty. He is well known in connexion with the story of his treasure house told by Herodotus (ii. 121), which greatly resembles that of Agamedes and Trophonius. (See Egypt, History.) 'Rhankaves (commonly also [[Rhangabe), Alexandros Rhizos]] (1810-1892), Greek savant, poet and statesman, was born at Constantinople of a Phanariot family on the 25th of December 1810. He was educated at Odessa and the military school at Munich. Having served as an officer of artillery in the Bavarian army, he returned to Greece, where he held several high educational and administrative appointments. He subsequently became ambassador at Washington (1867),(1867), Paris (1868),(1868), and Berlin (1874-1886), and was one of the Greek plenipotentiaries at the congress of 1878. After his recall he lived at Athens, where he died on the 29th of June 1892. He was the chief representative of a school of literary men whose object was to restore as far as possible the ancient classical language. Of his various works, Hellenic Antiquities (1842-1855, of great value for epigraphical purposes), Archaeologia (1865-1866), an illustrated Archaeological Lexicon (1888-1891), and a History of Modern Greek Literature (1877) are of the most interest to scholars. He wrote also the following dramatic pieces: The Marriage of Kutrules (comedy), Dukas (tragedy), the Thirty Tyrants, The Eve (of the Greek revolution); the romances, The Prince of Morea, Leila, and The Notary of Argostoli; and translated portions of Dante, Schiller, Lessing, Goethe and Shakespeare.
A complete edition of his philological works in nineteen volumes was published at Athens (1874-1890), and his 'Airc .vrnioveuµara(Memoirs) appeared posthumously in 1894-1$95.
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