TAMAULIPAS, a northern Gulf-coast state of Mexico, bounded N. by Texas, U.S.A., E. by the Gulf of Mexico, S.E. by Vera Cruz, S. by San Luis Potosi, W. by Nuevo Leon, and N.W. by Coahuila. Area 32,128 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 218,948. The central and southern parts of the state are mountainous, but there are extensive fertile plains in the N. sloping gently N.E. toward the Rio Grande, and the coastal zone is sandy, much broken by lagoons and uninhabited. Except in the N. this coastal zone is only 5 to 7 m. wide, but the foothills region back of this is usually well wooded and fertile, and the low alluvial river valleys penetrate deeply into the sierras. There are four navigable rivers in the state - the Rio Grande del Norte, or Rio Bravo, which forms the boundary line with the United States, the Conchas or Presas, the Soto da Marina, and the Tamesi. The Panuco forms the southern boundary for a short distance. A peculiar feature of the hydrography of Tamaulipas is the series of coastal lagoons formed by the building of new beaches across the indentations of the coast. The largest of these is the Laguna de la Madre, 125 m. long, which receives the waters of the Rio Conchas, and is separated in places from the Gulf by only a narrow ridge of sand dunes. The climate is hot, humid and malarial on the coast, but is pleasant on the more elevated lands of the interior. On the plains bordering the Rio Grande frosts are frequent. The rainfall is abundant, especially on the mountain slopes of the south. The principal industry is agriculture. Sugar, cereals, tobacco, cotton and coffee are produced, and probably fruit may be raised successfully. Stock-raising receives some attention and hides and cattle are exported. The preparation of ixtle fibre for export is becoming an important industry. Copper is mined and extensive deposits of petroleum and asphalt are being exploited. Railway communication is provided by the Mexican National which crosses the northern end of the state, the Belgian line from Monterrey to Tampico, and a branch of the Mexican Central from San Luis Potosi to Tampico.
The capital of Tamaulipas is Ciudad Victoria (pop. in 1900, 10,086), a small sierra town on the Monterrey and Tampico railway about 120 m. from Tampico. Its public buildings are good and it has the improvements of a modern town. It has a fine climate, a good trade, and is a summer resort for residents of the coast. The city is near the Rio Santander, and was once called Nuevo Santander. Among other towns in the state may be mentioned: Matamoros, on the Rio Grande; Tampico (q.v.), on the Panuco, the principal port of the state; Tula (6935(6935 in 1900); Jaumave (about 10,000 in 1900, chiefly Indians), 38 m. S.W. of Ciudad Victoria, in the heart of a prominent ixtle-producing region; Mier (7114 in 1895), on the Rio Grande, 95 m. E.N.E. of Monterrey; San Carlos (6871 in 18 95), 57 m. N.E. of the capital; Camargo (6815 in 1895), on the San Juan near the Rio Grande, once the old Spanish mission of San Augustin Laredo; and Reynosa (6137 in 18 95), 54 m. W.N.W. of Matamoros.
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