THIBAUT (or Theobald) Iv. (1201-1253), count of Champagne and Brie, and king of Navarre, French poet, was born at Troyes in 1201. His father, Thibaut III. of Champagne, died before his son's birth, and his mother, Blanche of Navarre, was compelled to resign the guardianship of the young prince to Philip Augustus, king of France, but there is little doubt that the child was acquainted with Chretien de Troyes and the other trouveres who found patronage at the court of Champagne. Thibaut's verses belong to what is called "courteous" poetry, but they have a personal note that distinguishes them from mere exercises. They are addressed to Blanche of Castille, the wife of Louis VIII., and Thibaut's relations with her have been the subject of much controversy. The count took part with Louis in the crusade against the Albigenses, but in 1226, with no apparent reason, left the king and returned to Champagne. Three months later Louis died under doubtful circumstances, and Thibaut was accused by his enemies of poisoning him to facilitate his own intrigue with Blanche. The real reason for Thibaut's desertion appears to have been a desire to consolidate his position as heir-apparent of Navarre by an alliance with the disaffected nobility of the south of France, but from this confederation Blanche was skilful enough to detach him. The resentment of the league involved him in a war in which Champagne was laid waste, and his capital saved only by the royal intervention. In 1234 he succeeded his uncle, Sancho VII., as king of Navarre, and from this period date his most fervent songs in praise of his lady. The crusade turned Thibaut's thoughts to religion, and he announced his intention of singing henceforth only in honour of the Virgin. Unfortunately his devotion took darker forms, for before sailing for the Holy Land he ordered and witnessed the burning of a hundred and eighty-three unfortunate men and women convicted of Manichaeism. The years 1239 and 1240 were spent in Palestine, and from the time of his return Thibaut devoted is obtained synthetically by heating sulphur with diphenylamine or by the condensation of ortho-aminothiophenol with pyrocatechin. It is a compound of neutral reaction. The first known dyestuff of this series was Lauth's violet, which was prepared by oxidizing paraphenylene diamine in acid solution in the presence of sulphur. By using dimethyl paraphenylene diamine in place of the simple diamine, methylene blue is obtained. The relationship of these substances to thiodiphenylamine was shown by A. Bernthsen, who, by nitration of thiodiphenylamine, cbtained a dinitro-compound which on reduction was converted into the corresponding di-amino-derivative and this on oxidation yielded Lauth's violet.
C6H N02 C61-13‹ > C6H3 NO 2 --> NH 2 Methylene blue is the most important of all blue basic dyes and is put on the market frequently in the form of its zinc chloride double salt, which is soluble in water. Acid oxidants in dilute aqueous solution convert it into methylene azure.
See further A. Bernthsen, Ann., 230, 73; 251, p. I; German Patents 45 39 (1887); 47374 (1888). For a discussion as to the constitution of these dyestuffs, whether they are quaternary ammonium salts or thionium salts, see A. Hantzsch, Ber., 1906, 39, pp. 153, 1365; F. Kehrmann, ibid., 1906, 39, 914.
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