TIPPERARY, a market town of Co. Tipperary, Ireland. Pop. (1901), 6281. It is beautifully situated near the base of the Slieve na muck or Tipperary Hills, a branch of the Galtee range, on the Waterford & Limerick line of the Great Southern & Western railway, 3 m. S.E. of Limerick Junction and i Tot S.W. of Dublin. It is governed by an urban district council. It is situated in the centre of a fine agricultural district, and its butter market ranks next to that of Cork. Condensed milk is manufactured. The town is of great antiquity, but first acquired importance by the erection of a castle by King John, of which there are no remains. A monastery founded for Augustinians by Henry III. gave a second impulse to its growth. The gatehouse, all that remains of this foundation, is the only building of antiquity in the town. Formerly Tipperary was a corporation from a grant made in 1310 by Edward II. New Tipperary was founded outside the town by Mr William O'Brien in 1890 during the "Plan of Campaign" inaugurated to boycott the Smith-Barry estate, in order to accommodate the tenants who vacated their holdings, but the scheme was a failure, and the place was abandoned and sold.
Tipp00 Sahib (1753-1799), sultan of Mysore, son of Hyder Ali, was born in 1753. He was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. In 1767 in the invasion of the Carnatic he commanded a corps of cavalry, and he distinguished himself in the Mahratta War of 1 775-79. On the outbreak of the first Mysore War in 1780 he was put at the head of a large body of troops, and defeated Brathwaite on the banks of the Coleroon in February 1782. He succeeded his father in December 1782, and in 1784 concluded peace with the British, and assumed the title of sultan. In 1787-88 he subjugated the Nairs of Malabar, and in 1789 provoked British invasion by ravaging the territories of the raja of Travancore. When the British entered Mysore in 1790, he retaliated by a counter-invasion, but was compelled by Cornwallis's victory near Seringapatam to cede half his dominions (March 16, 1792). The British having deemed it necessary to renew hostilities in March 1799, he was shut up in Seringapatam and finally killed during the storm (May 4, 1799). Tippoo was of cruel disposition, and inferior in military talents to his father.
See L. B. Bowring, Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan (" Rulers of India series," 1893).
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