TLAXCALA, an inland state of Mexico, bounded N.E. and S. by Puebla, and W. by the state of Mexico. Area 1505 sq. m. Pop. (1900), 172,315. Tlaxcala lies on the great central plateau of Mexico and has a mean altitude of about 7000 ft. Several mountains rise in the west and south, culminating in the volcanic peak of Malinche, or Malintzin (14,636 ft.). The state has three railway lines crossing its territory. The capital is Tlaxcala and the principal towns are Chiautempan (about 5000), Calpulalpan, San Antonio, Tlaxco, Huamantla and Barron-Escandon (Apizaco). The state nearly coincides with the ancient Indian republic founded in the 13th century by a branch of the Nahuatlan race, who migrated from the western shores of Lake Texcoco. Though surrounded on all sides by the great Aztec Empire, the tiny republic maintained its independence until the arrival of the Spaniards. The Tlaxcaltecs, or Tlascalans, after a fierce resistance to Cortes in 1519, became efficient allies of the Spaniards and contributed largely to their final success. The present inhabitants are chiefly of this original stock, and retain their language and many ancient customs.
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