TRENTE ET QUARANTE (called also Rouge et Noir), a game of French origin played with cards and a special table. It is one of the two games played in the gambling rooms at Monte Carlo, roulette being the other. The diagram illustrates one half of the table, the other half precisely corresponding to it. Two croupiers sit on each side, one of them being the dealer; behind the two on the side opposite to the dealer a supervisor of the game has his seat. Six packs of fifty-two cards each are used; these are well shuffled, and the croupier asks any of the players to cut, handing him a blank card with which to divide the mixed packs. There are only four chances at trente et quarante: rouge or noir, known as the grand tableau; couleur or inverse, known as the petit tableau. At Monte Carlo the stakes are placed on the divisions indicated on the table, the maximum being 12,000 francs and the minimum 20 francs which must be staked in gold. The dealer, who has placed all the cards before him, separates a few with the blank card, takes them in his left hand and invites the players to stake with the formula, "Messieurs, faites votre jeu!" After a pause he exclaims "Le jeu est fait, rien ne va plus !" after which no stake can be made. He then deals the cards in a row until the aggregate number of pips is something more than thirty, upon which he deals a second row, and that which comes nearest to thirty wins, the top row being always distinguished as noir, and the lower as rouge. In announcing the result the word trente is always omitted, the dealer merely announcing un, trois, quatre, as the case may be, though when forty is turned up it is described as quarante. The words noir and inverse are also never used, the announcement being rouge gagne or rouge perd, couleur gagne or couleur perd. Gain or loss over couleur and inverse depends upon the colour of the first card dealt. If this should be also the colour of the winning row, the player wins. Assuming, for example, that the first card dealt is red, and that the lower row of the cards dealt is nearest to thirty, the dealer will announce "Rouge gagne et le couleur." If the first card dealt is red, but the black or top ,row of cards is nearest to thirty, the dealer announces "Rouge perd et le couleur." It frequently happens that both rows of cards when added together give the same number. Should they both, for instance, add up to thirty-three, the dealer will announce "Trois apres," and the deal goes for nothing except in the event of their adding up to thirty-one. Un apres (i.e. thirty-one) is known as a refait; the stakes are put in prison to be left for the decision of the next deal, or if the player prefers it he can withdraw half his stake, leaving the other half for the bank. Assurance against a refait can be made by paying 1% on the value of the stake with a minimum of five francs. When thus insured against a refait the player is at liberty to withdraw his whole stake. It has been calculated that on an average a refait occurs once in thirty-eight coups. After each deal the cards are pushed into a metal bowl let into the table in front of the dealer. When he has not enough left to complete the two rows, he remarks "Les cartes passent"; they are taken from the bowl, reshuffled, and another deal begins.
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