TROUT (Salmo trutta), a fish closely related to the salmon. Most modern ichthyologists agree in regarding the various North European forms of trout, whether migratory or not, as varieties or races of a highly variable and plastic species, to be distinguished from the salmon by a few more or less constant characters, the most readily ascertainable of which resides in the smaller scales on the back of the caudal region of the body, these being 14 to 16 (rarely 13) in an oblique series between the posterior border of the adipose fin and the lateral line, and in the greater length of the folded anal fin as compared to the depth of the caudal peduncle. The gill-rakers are also usually fewer, 16 to 18 on the anterior branchial arch. The young may be distinguished from salmon-parr by the greater length of the upper jaw, the maxillary bone extending beyond the vertical of the centre of the eye, and in specimens 6 in. long often to below the posterior of the eye. The young are brown or olive above, silvery or golden below, with more or less numerous black and red spots in addition to the parr marks, and, contrary to what is observed in the salmon, black spots are usually present below the lateral line. Except for the gradual disappearance of the parr marks, this coloration is retained in the form known as the brook trout or brown trout (S. fario), which is non-migratory, and varies much in size according to the waters it inhabits, in some brooks not growing to more than 8 in., whilst in larger rivers and lakes it may attain a weight of 20 lb or more. The coloration of the young is more strongly departed from in the races known as §ea trout (S. trutta) and sewin (S. eriox or cambricus), anadromous forms resembling the salmon in habits, and assuming in the sea a silvery coat, with, however, as a rule, more black spots on the sides below the lateral line.
The principal British races of trout are the following: the northern sea trout (S. trutta, sensu stricto), silvery, losing the teeth on the shaft of the vomer in the adult, and migratory like the salmon; the southern sea trout (S. eriox or cambricus), similar to the preceding, but with the hind margin of the gillcover more or less produced, the lower bone (suboperculum) projecting beyond the end of the upper (operculum); the brown trout (S. fario), non-migratory, usually retaining the teeth on the shaft of the vomer, brown or olive with black and red spots, rarely more silvery, with numerous black spots; the Lochleven trout (S. levenensis), distinguished from the preceding by a more silvery coloration, frequent absence of red spots and a pink or red flesh; the estuary trout (S. gillivensis and S. orcadensis), large brown trout living in salt water without assuming the silvery coloration; the Gillaroo trout (S. stomachicus), in which the membranes of the stomach are conspicuously thicker than in the other trout, more so in adult examples than in young ones. But all these forms are ill-defined and subject to such variations when transported from one locality to another as to render their recognition a matter of insuperable difficulty. The instability of the characters on which S. levenensis is based has been conclusively shown by the experiments conducted by Sir James Maitland at Howietoun. Large specimens of migratory trout are often designated as bull-trout, but no definition has ever been given by which this form could be established, even as a race.
Other European varieties are the trout of the Lake of Geneva (S. lemanus), of the Lake of Garda (S. carpio), of Dalmatia (S. dentex), of Hungary (S. microlepis), of the Caspian Sea (S. caspius), &c. The size of trout varies much according to the waters in which they live, the anadromous forms nearly equalling the salmon in this respect, specimens of over 4 ft. and weighing up to 50 lb being on record.
The habitat of S. trutta extends over the whole of Europe, the Atlas of Morocco and Algeria, Transcaucasia, Asia Minor and northern Persia. By the agency of man the species has been thoroughly established in Tasmania and New Zealand, where it thrives in an extraordinary manner, and attains a very large size.
Closely allied species are found in North America, west of the Rocky Mountains, the best known being the rainbow trout (S. irideus or shasta), which has been introduced into many parts of Europe as well as the eastern states of North America,, New Zealand and South Africa. It is more hardy than the English trout, and accommodates itself in almost stagnant waters, and has thus proved a success in many ponds which were regarded as fit for coarse fish only; but in many places it has caused disappointment by going down to the sea, whence it is not known ever to return. It is a handsome trout, bluish or purplish above, silvery or golden below, more or less profusely spotted with black on the body and fins, and with an orange or red lateral band. Its range extends from Alaska to North Mexico. The rainbow trout merges into a larger form, S. gairdneri, which resembles the British sea trout.
A remarkable European trout is the short-snouted trout,, S. obtusirostris, a non-migratory species from Dalmatia, Herzegovina, Bosnia and Montenegro. It has a small mouth with a feeble dentition, resembling that of the grayling. A closely allied form, S. ohridanus, has recently been discovered in Macedonia. (G. A. B.) Trouvere, the name given to the medieval poets of northern and central France, who wrote in the langue d'oil or langue d'oui. The word is derived from the French verb trouver, to find or invent. The trouveres flourished abundantly in the 12th and 13th centuries. They were court-poets who devoted themselves almost exclusively to the composition and recitation of a particular kind of song, for which the highest society of that day in France had an inordinate fondness. This poetry, the usual subject of which was some refinement of the passion of love, was dialectical rather than emotional. As Jeanroy has said, the best trouveres were those who "into the smallest number of lines could put the largest number of ideas, or at least of those commonplaces which envelop thought in its. most impersonal and coldest form." The trouveres were not, as used to be supposed, lovers singing to their sweethearts, but they were the pedants and attorneys of a fantastic tribunal of sentiment. This was more monotonous in the hands of the trouveres than it had been in those of the troubadours, for the latter often employed their art for purposes of satire, religion, humour and politics, which were scarcely known to the poets of the northern language.
The established idea that the poetry of the trouveres was entirely founded upon imitation of that of the troubadours, has been ably combated by Paul Meyer, who comes to the conclusion that the poetry of the north of France was essentially no less original than that of the south. The passage of Raoul Glaber, in which he says that about the year loon southern men began to appear in France and in Burgundy, "as odd in their ways as in their dress, and having the appearance of jongleurs," is usually quoted, but although this is valuable contemporary evidence, it proves neither what these "jongleurs" brought from the south nor what the poets of the north could borrow from them. The first appearance of trouveres seems to be much later than this, and to date from 1137, when Eleonore of Aquitaine, who was herself the granddaughter of an illustrious troubadour, arrived in the court of France as the queen of Louis VII. It is recorded that she continued to speak her native language, which would be the Poitiers dialect of the langue d'oc. She was queen for fifteen years (1137-1152), and this, no doubt, was the period during which the southern influence was strongest in the literature of northern France. There is not any question that the successive crusades tended to produce relations between the two sections of poetical literature. The great mass of the existing writings of the trouveres deals elaborately and artificially with the passion of love, as it had already been analysed in the langue d'oc. But those who are most inclined to favour the northern poets are obliged to confess that the latter rarely approach the grace and delicacy of the troubadours, while their verse shows less ingenuity and less variety. The earliest trouveres, like Cuene de Bethune and Huges de Berze, in writing their amatory lyrics, were certainly influenced by what troubadours had written, especially when, like Bertrand de Born, these troubadours were men who wandered far and wide, under the glory of a great social prestige. We should know more exactly what the nature of the Provencal influence was if the songs of all the trouveres who flourished before the middle of the 12th century had not practically disappeared. When we become conscious of the existence of the trouveres, we find Cuene de Bethune in possession of the field, a poet of too much originality to be swept away as a mere imitator. At the same time, even Paul Meyer, who has been the great asserter of the independence of the poetry of northern France, is obliged to admit that if, at the end of the 12th century and throughout the 13th, several literary centres were formed where an amatory poetry, full of conventional grace, was held in high honour, it was because several princely courts in the south had set the example. In this sense it cannot be denied that the whole art of the trouveres was secondary and subsidiary to the art of the troubadours.
The poetical forms adopted by the trouveres bore curious and obscure names, the signification of which is still in some cases dubious. As a rule each poem belonged to one of three classes, and was either a rotruenge, or a serventois, or an estrabot. The rotruenge was a song with a refrain; the serventois was, in spite of its name, quite unlike the sirventes of the troubadours and had a more ribald character; the estrabot was allied to the strambotto of the Italians, and was a strophaic form "composed of a front part which was symmetrical, and of a tail which could be varied at will" (Gaston Paris). But scholars are still uncertain as to the positive meaning of these expressions, and as to the theory of the verse-forms themselves.
The court poetry of the trouveres particularly flourished under the protection of three royal ladies. Marie, the regent of Champagne, was the practical ruler of that country from 1181 to 1197, and she encouraged the minstrels in the highest degree. She invited Ricaut de Barbezieux to her court, rewarded the earliest songs of Gace Brule, and discussed the art of verse with Chretien of Troyes. Her sister, Aelis or Alice, welcomed the trouveres to Blois; she was the protector of Gautier d'Arras and of Le Chatelain de Couci. A sister of the husbands of these ladies, another Aelis, who became the second queen of Louis VII. in 1160, received Cuene de Bethune in Paris, and reproved him for the Picard accent with which he recited his poetry. At the end of the 12th century we see that the refinement and elegance of the court-poets was recognized in the north of France by those who were responsible for the education of princes. A trouvere, Gui de Ponthieu, was appointed tutor to William III. of Macon, and another, Philippe of Flanders, to Philippe Auguste. The vogue of the trouveres began during the third crusade; it rose to its greatest height during the fourth crusade and the attack upon the Albigenses. The first forty years of the 13th century was the period during which the courtly lyrical poetry was cultivated with most assiduity. At first it was a purely aristocratic pastime, and among the principal trouveres were princes such as Thibaut IV. of Navarre, Louis of Blois and John, king of Jerusalem. About 1230 the taste for court poetry spread to the wealthy bourgeoisie, especially in Picardy, Artois and Flanders. Before its final decline, and after the courts of Paris and Blois had ceased to be its patrons, the poetry of the trouveres found its centre and enjoyed its latest successes at Arras. It was here that some of the most original and the most skilful of all the trouveres, such as Jacques Bretel and Adam de la Halle, exercised their art. Another and perhaps still later school flourished at Reims.
About 1280, having existed for a century and a half, the poetical system suddenly decayed and disappeared; the very names of the court-poets were forgotten. During this time the song, chanson, had been treated as the most dignified and honourable form of literature, as Dante explains in his De vulgari eloquentia. But the song, as the trouveres understood it, was not an unstudied or emotional burst of verbal melody; it was, on the contrary, an effort of the intelligence, a piece of wilful and elaborate casuistry. The poet was invariably a lover, devoted to a married lady who was not his wife, and to whose caprices he was bound to submit blindly and patiently, in an endless and resigned humility. The progress of this conventional courtship was laid down according to certain strict rules of ceremonial; love became a science and a religion, and was practised by the laws of precise etiquette.
The curious interest of the trouveres, for us, lies in the fact that during an age when the northern world was ignorant and brutal, sunken in a rude sensuality, the trouveres advanced a theory of morals which had its absurd and immoral side, but which demanded a devotion to refinement and a close attention to what is reserved, delicate and subtle in personal conduct. They were, moreover, when the worst has been admitted about their frigidity and triviality, refiners of the race, and they did much to lay the foundation of French wit and French intelligence. The trouveres have not enjoyed the advantage of the troubadours, whose feats and adventures attracted the notice of contemporary biographers. Little is known about their lives, and they pass across the field of literary history like a troop of phantoms. Close students of this body of somewhat monotonous poetry have fancied that they detected a personal note in some of the leaders of the movement. It is certainly obvious that Cuene (or Conon) de Bethune had a violence of expression which gives life to his chansons. The delicate grace of Thibaut of Champagne, the apparent sincerity of Le Chatelain de Couci, the descriptive charm of Moniot of Arras, the irony of Richard of Fournival, have been celebrated by critics who have perhaps discovered differences where none exist. It is more certain that Adam de la Halle, the hunchback of Arras, had a superb gift of versification. The rondel (published in E. de Coussemaker's edition, 1872) beginning "A Dieu courant amouretes, Car je m'en vois Souspirant en terre estrange !" marks perhaps the highest point to which the delicate, frosty art of the trouveres attained. Music took a prominent place in all the performances of the trouveres, but in spite of the erudition of de Coussemaker, who devoted himself to the subject, comparatively little is known of the melodies which they used. But enough has been discovered to justify the general statement of Tiersot that "we may conclude that the musical movement of the age of the trouveres was derived directly from the most ancient form of popular French melody." A precious MS. in the Faculty of Medicine of Montpellier contains the music of no fewer than 345 part-songs attributed to trouveres, and an examination of these enables a "pitiless arranger" to divine the air, the primitive, simple and popular melody.
The principal authorities on the poetry and music of the trouveres are: H. Binet, Le Style de la lyrique courtoise en France aux xiime et xiii me siecles (Paris, 1891); Gaston Paris, Les Origines de la poesie lyrique en France au moyen age (Paris, 1892); A. Jeanroy, Les Origines de la poesie lyrique en France au moyen age (Paris, 1889); Julian Tiersot, Histoire de la chanson populaire en France; E. de Coussemaker, Art harmonique aux xii me et xiii me siecles (Paris, 1865). The works of the principal trouveres have been edited: those of Le Chatelain de Coucy by F. Michel (1830); of Adam de la Halle by E. de Coussemaker (1872); of Conon de Bethune by Wallenskold (Helsingfors, 1891); of Thibaut IV., king of Navarre, by P. Tarbe (1851). (E. G.)
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