TUCUMAN, or SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMAN, a city of Argentina, capital of the province of Tucuman, on the right bank of the Sali, or Dulce river, 780 m. by rail N.W. of Buenos Aires, in lat. 26° 50' S., long. 64° 35' W. Pop. (1895), 34,3 0 5; (1904, estimated) 55,000. The climate is warm and enervating, with no great seasonal variation during the year except in the rainfall, which falls almost wholly between September and April. The temperature averages about 67°, with a maximum of 104°. Malarial diseases, especially "chucho" (fever and ague), are common. Tucuman is laid out in regular squares, and still retains many of its old characteristics, low buildings enclosing large courts (patios), with large rooms, thick walls, and tile roofs. The more noteworthy edifices and institutions of Tucuman are the "matriz" church, Merced church, cabildo, national college, normal school, the Belgrano theatre, hospital, public library, courts of justice, post office, and sundry charitable institutions.
Tucuman was founded in 1565 by Diego Villaruel at the confluence of the Sali and Monteros rivers, but frequent inundations led to a removal to its present site in 1585. In 16801t succeeded Santiago del Estero as the capital of the province of Tucuman, then under the government of the Spanish viceroy at Lima. The province of Tucuman then extended from Jujuy south to Cordoba. In 1776 the viceroyalty of La Plata was created and Tucuman was transferred to its jurisdiction. In 1816 a convention of delegates from the La Plata provinces met in Tucuman and signed (July 9th) an act of independence, which formally dissolved all ties with the mother country.
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