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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


Relating to or derived from the medulla of the adrenal glands, e.g., adrenomedullary extracts.

adrenomegaly (a-dre-no-meg′a-le)
Enlargement of one or both adrenal glands. [adreno- + G. megas, big]

adrenomimetic (a-dre′no-mi-met′ik)
Having an action similar to that of the compounds epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are liberated from the adrenal medulla and adrenergic nerves; term proposed to replace the less accurate term, sympathomimetic. Cf.:adrenergic, cholinomimetic. [adreno- + G. mimetikos, imitative]

adrenomyeloneuropathy (ad-re′no-mi′e-lo-noo-rop′a-the)
A disorder of adult males, consisting of long-standing adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, progressive myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and sphincter disturbances; considered a variant of adrenoleukodystrophy. [adreno- + G. myelos, medulla, + neuron, nerve, + pathos, suffering]

adrenopathy (a-dre-nop′a-the)
SYN: adrenalopathy.

Decrease in function of adrenal glands with increasing age, analogous to menopause.

adrenoprival (a-dre-no-pri′val)
Rarely used term indicating a loss of adrenal function, as a result of either disease or surgical excision. [adreno- + L. privo, to deprive]

adrenoreactive (a-dre′no-re-ak′tiv)
Responding to the catecholamines.

adrenoreceptors (a-dre′no-re-sep′terz)
SYN: adrenergic receptors, under receptor.

adrenosterone (a-dre-nos′ter-on)
An androgen isolated from the adrenal cortex. SYN: andrenosterone.

adrenotoxin (a-dre-no-tok′sin)
A substance toxic for the adrenal glands. [adreno- + toxin]

adrenotropic, adrenotrophic (a-dre-no-tro′pik, -tro′fik)
SYN: adrenocorticotropic.

adrenotropin (a-dre-no-tro′pin)
SYN: adrenocorticotropic hormone.

adriamycin (a′dre-a-mi′sin)
SYN: doxorubicin.

ad sat
Abbreviation for L. ad saturatum, to saturation.

Alfred W., U.S. neurosurgeon, 1887–1951. See A. test, A. forceps, A. maneuver, Brown-A. forceps.

adsorb (ad-sorb′)
To take up by adsorption. [L. ad, to, + sorbeo, to suck in]

adsorbate (ad-sor′bat)
Any substance adsorbed.

adsorbent (ad-sor′bent)
1. A substance that adsorbs, i.e., a solid substance endowed with the property of attaching other substances to its surface without any covalent bonding, e.g., activated charcoal. 2. An antigen or antibody used in immune adsorption.

adsorption (ad-sorp′shun)
The property of a solid substance to attract and hold to its surface a gas, liquid, or a substance in solution or in suspension. For example, condensation of a gas onto a surface. Cf.:absorption. [L. ad, to, + sorbeo, to suck up] immune a. 1. removal of antibody (agglutinin or precipitin) from antiserum by use of specific antigen; after aggregation has occurred, the antigen-antibody complex is separated either by centrifugation or by filtration; 2. removal of antigen by specific antiserum in a similar manner.

adsternal (ad-ster′nal)
Near or upon the sternum.

adterminal (ad-ter′mi-nal)
In a direction toward the nerve endings, muscular insertions, or the extremity of any structure.

adult (a-dult′)
1. Fully grown and physically mature. 2. A fully grown and mature individual. [L. adultus, grown up fr. adolesco, to grow up]

adulterant (a-dul′ter-ant)
An impurity; an additive that is considered to have an undesirable effect or to dilute the active material so as to reduce its therapeutic or monetary value.

adulteration (a-dul-ter-a′shun)
The alteration of any substance by the deliberate addition of a component not ordinarily part of that substance; usually used to imply that the substance is debased as a result.

adultomorphism (a-dul-to-mor′fizm)
Interpretation of children's behavior in adult terms.

Abbreviation for L. adversum, against.

advance (ad-vans′)
To move forward. [Fr. avancer, to set forward]

advanced life support
Definitive emergency medical care that may include defibrillation, airway management, and use of drugs and medications. Cf.:basic life support.

advancement (ad-vans′ment)
Surgical procedure in which an attachment is partially severed or released so that tissue may be moved to a more distal point. capsular a. surgical reattachment of the anterior portion of Tenon capsule. tendon a. excision of the tendon of an eye muscle and attachment of it to a more anterior location on the globe.

adventitia (ad-ven-tish′a)
The outermost connective tissue covering of any organ, vessel, or other structure not covered by a serosa; instead, the covering is properly derived from without ( i.e., from the surrounding connective tissue) and does not form an integral part of such organ or structure. Terminologia Anatomica [TA] lists a. (tunica a.) of the following organs: ductus deferens, esophagus, renal pelvis, seminal glands, and ureters. SYN: membrana a. (1) , tunica a.. [L. adventicius, coming from abroad, foreign, fr. ad, to + venio, to come]

adventitial (ad-ven-tish′al)
Relating to the outer coat or adventitia of a blood vessel or other structure. SYN: adventitious (3) .

adventitious (ad-ven-tish′us)
1. Arising from an external source or occurring in an unusual place or manner. SEE ALSO: extrinsic. 2. Occurring accidentally or spontaneously, as opposed to natural causes or hereditary. 3. SYN: adventitial.

adynamia (a-di-nam′e-a, ad-i-na′me-a)
1. SYN: asthenia. 2. Lack of motor activity or strength. 3. Obsolete term for paralytic ileus of the intestine. [G. a- priv. + dynamis, power] a. episodica hereditaria hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, without myotonia. See entries under paralysis..

adynamic (a-di-nam′ik)
Relating to adynamia.

For words so beginning and not found here, see under e-.

Christopher T., Swiss anatomist, 1835–1885. See A. plane.

Aedes (a-e′dez)
A widespread genus of small mosquitoes frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. [G. a., unpleasant, unfriendly] A. aegypti the yellow fever mosquito, a species that is also the vector of the pathogen of dengue; characterized by white lyre-shaped markings on the thorax. A. albopictus species that is an important vector of dengue viruses widespread in the Pacific basin. A. atlanticus mosquitoes in the family Culicidae known to transmit viruses that cause dengue, yellow fever, and encephalitis. A. caballus species that is an important vector of Rift Valley fever in Africa. A. dorsalis mosquito species that is a secondary or suspected vector of Western equine encephalitis. A. leucocelaenus species that transmits yellow fever in South America. A. melanimon mosquito species that is a vector of Western equine encephalitis and California group encephalitis. A. mitchellae mosquito species that is a secondary or suspected vector of Eastern equine encephalitis. A. nigromaculis mosquito species that is a secondary or suspected vector of Western equine encephalitis and California group encephalitis. A. polynesiensis species that is an important vector of filariasis and dengue in the Polynesian region. A. sollicitans a common salt-marsh mosquito species and vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. A. taeniorhynchus mosquito species that is a vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis and a secondary or suspected vector of California group encephalitis. A. triseriatus mosquito species that is a vector of California group encephalitis. A. trivittatus mosquito species that is a vector of California group encephalitis. A. variegatus a species that is a vector of filarial parasites in the Pacific Islands (Gilbert and Ellice group). A. vexans mosquito species that is a vector of California group encephalitis and a secondary or suspected vector of Eastern equine encephalitis.

Aelurostrongylus (e′loor-o-stron′ji-lus)
A common genus of lungworm in cats; land snails and slugs serve as intermediate hosts and snail-eating animals can serve as transport hosts. [G. ailuros, cat, + Mod. L., fr. G. strongylus, round]

aequorin (e′kwo-rin)
A luminescent protein isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea which emits blue light in the presence of even minute amounts of calcium ion; injected intracellularly, it is used to measure free calcium ion transients within cells. SEE ALSO: fura-2, quin-2.

aer-, aero-
The air, a gas; aerial, gassy. [G. aer (L. aer), air]

aerate (ar′ate)
1. To supply (blood) with oxygen. 2. To expose to the circulation of air for purification. 3. To supply or charge (liquid) with a gas, especially carbon dioxide.

aerendocardia (ar-en-do-kar′de-a)
Presence of undissolved air in the blood within the heart. [aer- + G. endon, within, + kardia, heart]

See aer-.

Aerobacter (ar-o-bak′ter)
See Enterobacter. [aero- + G. bakterion, a small staff]

aerobe (ar′ob)
1. An organism that can live and grow in the presence of oxygen. 2. An organism that can use oxygen as a final electron acceptor in a respiratory chain. [aero- + G. bios, life] obligate a. an organism which cannot live or grow in the absence of oxygen.

aerobic (ar-o′bik)
1. Living in air. 2. Relating to an aerobe. SYN: aerophilic, aerophilous.

aerobiology (ar′o-bi-ol′o-je)
The study of atmospheric constituents, living and nonliving, of biological significance, e.g., airborne spores, pathogenic bacteria, allergenic substances, pollutants.

aerobioscope (ar-o-bi′o-skop)
An apparatus for determining the bacterial content of the air. [aero- + G. bios, life, + skopeo, to view]

aerobiosis (ar-o-bi-o′sis)
Existence in an atmosphere containing oxygen. [aero- + G. biosis, mode of living]

aerobiotic (ar-o-bi-ot′ik)
Relating to aerobiosis.

aerocele (ar′o-sel)
Distention of a small natural cavity with gas. [aero- + G. kele, tumor]

Aerococcus (ar-o-kok′us)
A genus of aerobic Gram-positive cocci occurring as airborne saprophytes; they produce α-hemolysis on blood agar and grow in the presence of 40% bile. A. viridans, the type species, is commonly recovered as part of the normal skin flora; it has low pathogenicity, but has been reported as a rare cause of endocarditis. [aero- + G. kokkos, berry]

aerocolpos (ar-o-kol′pos)
Obsolete term for distention of the vagina with gas. [aero- + G. kolpos, lap, hollow]

aerodermectasia (ar′o-der-mek-ta′ze-a)
SYN: subcutaneous emphysema. [aero- + G. derma, skin, + ektasis, a stretching out]

aerodontalgia (ar′o-don-tal′je-a)
Dental pain caused by either increased or reduced atmospheric pressure. SYN: aero-odontalgia, aero-odontodynia. [aero- + G. odous, tooth, + algos, pain] primary a. dental pain associated with expansion of trapped gases within a tooth, as under a filling or in an infected pulp. secondary a. pain referred to the dental area from an area of aerosinusitis.

aerodontia (ar-o-don′she-a)
The science of the effect of either increased or reduced atmospheric pressure on the teeth. [aero- + G. odous, tooth]

aerodynamics (ar′o-di-nam′iks)
The study of air and other gases in motion, the forces that set them in motion, and the results of such motion. [aero- + G. dynamis, force]

aerodynamic size
In aerosols, the particle size with unit density that best represents the aerodynamic behavior of a particle.

aerogastria (ar-o-gas′tre-a)
Distention of the stomach with gas. blocked a. retention of gas in the stomach due to spasm of the sphincteric region of the lower esophagus which prevents belching.

aerogen (ar′o-jen)
A gas-forming microorganism.

aerogenesis (ar-o-jen′e-sis)
Production of gas, as by a microorganism. [aero- + G. genesis, origin]

aerogenic, aerogenous (ar-o-jen′ik, -oj′e-nus)

aeromedicine (ar-o-med′i-sin)
SYN: aviation medicine.

aeromonad (ar-o-mo′nad)
A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus Aeromonas.

Aeromonas (ar-o-mo′nas)
A genus of Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Vibrionaceae) containing rod-shaped to coccoid cells; motile cells ordinarily possess a single, polar flagellum; some species are nonmotile. The metabolism of these organisms is both respiratory and fermentative; nutritional requirements are not stringent. These bacteria are found in water and sewage; some are pathogenic to fresh water and marine animals, and to humans. The type species is A. hydrophila. A. hydrophila a species that causes cellulitis, wound infections, acute diarrhea (waterborne and shellfish-associated), septicemia, and urinary tract infections in humans. Also causes red leg disease of frogs. The type species of A..

aero-odontalgia (ar′o-o-don-tal′je-a)
SYN: aerodontalgia.

aero-odontodynia (ar′o-o-don-to-din′e-a)
SYN: aerodontalgia.

aeropause (ar′o-pawz)
An upper region of the atmosphere, between the stratosphere and outer space, in which gas particles are so sparse as to provide almost no support for man's physiologic requirements or for vehicles that require air for burning fuel.


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