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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


allergen (al′er-jen)
Term for an antigen that induces an allergic or hypersensitive response. [allergy + G. -gen, producing]

allergenic (al-er-jen′ik)
SYN: antigenic.

allergic (a-ler′jik)
Relating to any response stimulated by an allergen.

allergic salute
A characteristic wiping or rubbing of the nose with a transverse or upward movement of the hand, as seen in children with allergic rhinitis.

allergist (al′er-jist)
One who specializes in the treatment of allergies.

allergization (al′er-ji-za′shun)
Active sensitization as a result of allergens being naturally or artificially brought into contact with susceptible tissues; the procedure of being allergized.

allergized (al′er-jizd)
Specifically altered in reactivity; rendered capable of exhibiting one or another aspect of allergy.

allergology (al-er-gol′o-ge)
The science concerned with allergic conditions.

allergosis (al′er-go′sis)
Any abnormal condition characterized by allergy. [allergy + G. -osis, condition]

allergy (al′er-je)
1. Hypersensitivity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) resulting in a marked increase in reactivity to that antigen upon subsequent exposure, sometimes resulting in harmful immunologic consequences. SYN: acquired sensitivity, induced sensitivity. SEE ALSO: allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, immune. 2. That branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of allergic manifestations. 3. An acquired hypersensitivity to certain drugs and biologic materials. [G. allos, other, + ergon, work] atopic a. atopy. bacterial a. 1. type I hypersensitivity allergic reaction caused by bacterial allergens; 2. the delayed type of skin test (type IV hypersensitivity reaction), so-called because of its early association with bacterial antigens ( e.g., the tuberculin test). cold a. physical symptoms produced by hypersensitivity to cold. contact a. SYN: allergic contact dermatitis. delayed a. a type IV hypersensitivity allergic reaction; so called because in a sensitized subject the reaction becomes evident hours after contact with the allergen (antigen), reaches its peak after 24–48 hours, then recedes slowly. Associated with cell-mediated responses. SEE ALSO: delayed reaction. Cf.:immediate a.. drug a. sensitivity (hypersensitivity) to a drug or other chemical. immediate a. a type I hypersensitivity allergic reaction; so called because in a sensitized subject the reaction becomes evident usually within minutes after contact with the allergen (antigen), reaches its peak within an hour or so, then rapidly recedes. SEE ALSO: immediate reaction, anaphylaxis. Cf.:delayed a.. latent a. a. that causes no signs or symptoms but can be revealed by means of certain immunologic tests with specific allergens. physical a. excessive response to factors in the environment such as heat or cold. polyvalent a. allergic response manifested simultaneously for several or numerous specific allergens.

Allescheria boydii (al-es-ke′re-a boy′de-i)
Former name for Pseudallescheria boydii. Anamorph is Scedosporium apiosperman.

allesthesia (al-es-the′ze-a)
SYN: allochiria. [G. allos, other, + aisthesis, sensation]

allethrins (al′e-thrinz)
Allethrolone esters of chrysanthemum-monocarboxylic acids and synthetic analogs of pyrethrins, which are pyrethrolone esters of the same acids; viscous liquids, insoluble in water, that can be absorbed by lungs, skin, and mucous membranes and may cause liver and kidney injury, with lung congestion; used as an insecticide.

allethrolone (a-leth′ro-lon)
An analog of pyrethrolone (2-propenyl replacing the 2,4-pentadienyl group) used in allethrins.

allied health professional
An individual trained to perform services in the care of patients other than a physician or registered nurse; includes a variety of therapy technicians ( e.g., pulmonary), radiology technicians, physical therapists, etc.

alligation (al-i-ga′shun)
A rule of mixtures whereby 1) the cost of a mixture may be determined, given the proportions and prices of the several ingredients; or 2) in pharmacy, the relative amounts of solutions of different percentages which must be taken to form a mixture of a given strength. [L. alligatio, fr. al-ligo (adl-), pp. -atus, to bind to]

Oscar Huntington, U.S. surgeon, 1836–1921. See A. forceps.

alliteration (a-lit-er-a′shun)
In psychiatry, a speech disturbance in which words commencing with the same sounds, usually consonants, are notably frequent. [Fr. allitération, fr. L. ad, to, + littera, letter of alphabet]

allium (al′e-um)
A. sativum (family Liliaceae), whose bulb contains up to 0.9% of volatile irritating oil with antiseptic action; has been used as a diaphoretic, diuretic, and expectorant. SYN: garlic. [L.]

all or none
See Bowditch law.

1. Other; differing from the normal or usual. 2. Chemical prefix formerly used with an amino acid whose side chain contains an asymmetric carbon; for example, the alloisoleucines and allothreonines. [G. allos, other]

alloalbuminemia (al′o-al-bu′mi-ne′me-a) [MIM*103600]
The autosomal dominant condition of having serum albumin of a variant type that differs in mobility on electrophoresis from the usual type A; individuals are heterozygous or homozygous for one of the alleles for variant albumin types, a genetic polymorphism without known clinical significance. SEE ALSO: inherited albumin variants, under variant. [allo- + albumin + G. haima, blood, + -ia]

alloantibody (al-o-an′ti-bod-e)
An antibody specific for an alloantigen.

alloantigen (al-o-an′ti-jen)
An antigen that occurs in some, but not in other members of the same species.

allobarbital (al-o-bar′bi-tal)
A hypnotic with an intermediate to long duration of action.

allocentric (al-o-sen′trik)
Characterized by or denoting interest centered in other persons rather than in one's self. Cf.:egocentric. SYN: heterocentric (2) . [allo- + G. kentron, center]

allochiria, allocheiria (al′-o-ki′re-a, al-o-ki′re-a)
A form of allachesthesia in which the sensation of a stimulus in one limb is referred to the contralateral limb. SYN: allesthesia, alloesthesia, Bamberger sign (2) . [allo- + G. cheir, hand]

allocholesterol (al-o-ko-les′ter-ol)
An isomer of cholesterol, differing in the position of the one double bond. SYN: coprostenol.

allochroic (al-o-kro′ik)
Changed or changeable in color; relating to allochroism.

allochroism (al-o-kro′izm)
A change or changeableness in color. [allo- + G. chroa, color]

allocortex (al′o-kor′teks) [TA]
O. Vogt term denoting several regions of the cerebral cortex, in particular the olfactory cortex and the hippocampus, characterized by fewer cell layers than the isocortex; SEE ALSO: cerebral cortex. SYN: heterotypic cortex. [allo- + L. cortex, bark (cortex)]

α-allocortol (al-o-kor′tol)
The 5α enantiomer of α-cortol; a metabolite of hydroxycortisone found in the urine.

α-allocortolone (al-o-kor′to-lon)
The 5α enantiomer of α-cortolone; a metabolite of hydrocortisone found in urine.

allodeoxycholic acid (al-o-de-oks′e-ko′lik)
One of the bile acids.

allodiploid (al-o-dip′loyd)
See alloploid.

allodynia (al-o-din′e-a)
Condition in which ordinarily nonpainful stimuli evoke pain. [allo- + G. odyne, pain]

alloerotism (al-o-ar′o-tizm)
Sexual attraction toward another person. [allo- + G. eros, love]

alloesthesia (al-o-es-the′ze-a)
SYN: allochiria.

allogamy (al-og′a-me)
Fertilization of the ova of one individual by the spermatozoa of another. Cf.:autogamy. [allo- + G. gamos, marriage]

allogenic, allogeneic (al-o-jen′ik, -je-ne′ik)
Used in transplantation biology. It pertains to different gene constitutions within the same species; antigenically distinct.

allogotrophia (al′o-go-tro′fe-a)
Growth or nourishment of one part or tissue at the expense of another part of the body. [allo- + G. trophe, nourishment]

allograft (al′o-graft)
A graft transplanted between genetically nonidentical individuals of the same species. SYN: allogeneic graft, homograft, homologous graft, homoplastic graft.

allogroup (al′o-groop)
A term formerly used to denote a haplotype composed of closely linked allotypic markers.

allohexaploid (al-o-heks′a-ployd)
See alloploid.

allohydroxylysine (aHyl) (a-lo-hi-drok-se-li-sen)
5-a.;a stereoisomer of 5-hydroxylysine; d-a. is the diastereoisomer of d-5-hydroxylysine.

alloimmune (al′o-im-oon′)
Immune to an allogenic antigen. [allo- + immune]

alloisoleucine (aIle) (a-lo-i-so-loo′sen)
A stereoisomer of isoleucine; d-a. is the diastereoisomer of d-isoleucine.

alloisomer (al-o-i′som-er)
A geometric isomer.

allokeratoplasty (al-o-ker′a-to-plas-te)
Replacement of opaque corneal tissue with a transparent prosthesis, usually plastic.

allokinesis (al-o-ki-ne′sis, -ki-ne′sis)
Passive or reflex movement; nonvoluntary movement. [allo- + G. kinesis, movement]

allolactose (a-lo-lak′tos)
A sugar, isomeric with lactose, that is the true inducer of the lac operon.

allolalia (al-o-la′le-a)
Any speech defect, especially one caused by a cerebral disorder. [allo- + G. lalia, talking]

allomerism (a-lom′er-izm)
The state of differing in chemical composition but having the same crystalline form. [allo- + G. meros, part]

allometron (al-o-me′tron)
An evolutionary change in form or proportion of organic beings. [allo- + G. metron, measure]

allomones (a-lo-mon)
A pheromone that induces a behavioral or physiologic change in a member of another species that is of benefit to the producer. Cf.:kairomones, pheromones. [G. allos, other, + -mone]

allomorphism (al-o-mor′fizm)
1. Change of shape in cells due to mechanical causes, such as flattening from pressure, or to progressive metaplasia, such as the change of bile duct cells into liver cells. 2. The state of being similar in chemical composition but differing in form (especially crystalline). [allo- + G. morphe, form]

allongement (al-onzh′-maw)
Rarely used term for lengthening of a structure during an operation by appropriate incisions. [Fr. elongation]

allopath (al′o-path)
1. A traditional medical physician, as distinguished from eclectic or homeopathic practitioners. 2. One who is a practitioner of allopathy. SYN: allopathist.

allopathic (al-o-path′ik)
Relating to allopathy.

allopathist (al-op′a-thist)
SYN: allopath.

allopathy (al-op′a-the)
Regular medicine, the traditional form of medical practice. Cf.:homeopathy. SYN: heteropathy (2) , substitutive therapy. [allo- + G. pathos, suffering]

allopentaploid (al-o-pent′a-ployd)
See alloploid.

allophanic acid (al-o-fan′ik)
Urea carbonic acid;its amide is biuret (allophanamide). SYN: carbamoylcarbamic acid, N-carboxyurea.

allophasis (al-of′a-sis)
Speech that is incoherent, disordered. [allo- + G. phasis, speech]

allophenic (al-o-fe′nik)
Pertaining to an animal produced by combining blastomeres of different genotypes ( i.e., from different pairs of parents). SEE ALSO: mosaic. [allo- + G. phaino, to appear, + -ic]

allophore (al′o-for)
SYN: erythrophore.

allophthalmia (al-of-thal′me-a)
SYN: heterophthalmus.

alloplasia (al-o-pla′ze-a)
SYN: heteroplasia. [allo- + G. plasis, a molding]

alloplast (al′o-plast)
An inert material used to construct, reconstruct, or augment tissue. [allo- + G. plastos, formed]

alloplasty (al′o-plas-te)
Repair of defects by allotransplantation.


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