aminophylline (a-me-no-fil′in, am-i-nof′i-lin, -en)
A solubilized form of theophylline; a diuretic, vasodilator, and cardiac stimulant; also used as a bronchodilator in asthma and in veterinary medicine. SYN: theophylline ethylenediamine.
An intestinal antispasmodic.
aminopropionic acid (a-me′no-pro-pe-on′ik)
A folic acid antagonist formerly used in the treatment of acute leukemia and other neoplastic diseases.
An antagonist of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade; devoid of muscarinic side-effects but associated with central nervous system stimulation.
Formerly widely used as an antipyretic and analgesic in rheumatism, neuritis, and common colds; may cause leukocytopenia; used to measure total body water. SYN: amidopyrine, aminophenazone, dipyrine.
A sympathomimetic appetite suppressant.
The α-NH2 group or the aminoacyl residue containing it at one end of a peptide or protein (usually at left as written). SYN: NH2-terminal.
aminotransferases (a-me′no-trans′fer-as-ez) [EC 2.6.1.x]
Enzymes transferring amino groups between an amino acid to (usually) a 2-keto acid; e.g., l-alanine and 2-ketoglutarate. Often, the amino acid is an α-amino acid. SYN: transaminases.
An effective weed killer that also possesses some antithyroid activity. SYN: amitrole.
An intestinal peptidase that acts on tripeptides, releasing an amino acid and a dipeptide.
Excretion of amines in the urine. [amine + G. ouron, urine]
amiodarone hydrochloride (a-me′o-da-ron)
An antiarrhythmic agent used in control of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Can cause significant and distinctive pulmonary toxicity.
A leprostatic agent. SYN: thiacetazone.
Direct division of the nucleus and cell, without the complicated changes in the nucleus that occur in the ordinary process of cell reproduction. SYN: direct nuclear division, Remak nuclear division. [G. a- priv. + mitosis]
Relating to or marked by amitosis.
amitriptyline hydrochloride (am-i-trip′ti-len)
Chemically and pharmacologically related to imipramine hydrochloride; an antidepressant agent with mild tranquilizing properties, used in the treatment of mental depression and in the depressive phase of manic-depressive states; sometimes used in the treatment of sleep disorders and neurogenic pain syndromes.
A calcium-blocking drug of the dihydropyridine series; belongs to the same class of agents as nifedipine.
ammeter (am) (am′me-ter)
An instrument for measuring strength of electric current in amperes.
Greek name of Egyptian god, Amun. See A. horn.
Friedrich A. von, German ophthalmologist and pathologist, 1799–1861. See A. fissure, A. prominence.
ammonemia, ammoniemia (am-o-ne′me-a)
The presence of ammonia or some of its compounds in the blood, thought to be formed from the decomposition of urea; it usually results in subnormal temperature, weak pulse, gastroenteric symptoms, and coma. SYN: hyperammonemia. [ammonia + G. haima, blood]
A colorless volatile gas, NH3, very soluble in water, capable of forming the weak base, NH4+OH−, which combines with acids to form ammonium compounds. [fr. L. sal ammoniacus, salt of Amen (G. Ammon), obtained near a temple of Amen in Libya]
A gum resin from a plant of western Asia, Dorema ammoniacum (family Umbelliferae); used internally as a stimulant and expectorant, and externally as a counterirritant plaster.
Relating to ammonia.
Enzymes removing ammonia or an amino compound nonhydrolytically (hence lyases, EC class 4), by rupture of a C&cbond;N bond leaving a double bond (EC subgroup 4.3); e.g., aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspartase).
Containing or combined with ammonia.
Combining form indicating an ammonium group; e.g., trimethylammonioethanol (choline).
The ion, NH4+, formed by combination of NH3 and H+ (the pKa value is 9.24); behaves as a univalent metal in forming a. compounds.
a. benzoate has been used as a stimulant, diuretic, urinary antiseptic, and antirheumatic.
a. carbonate (NH4)2CO3;a cardiac and respiratory stimulant and carminative expectorant.
a. chloride NH4Cl;a stimulant expectorant and cholagogue; used to relieve alkalosis and to promote lead excretion; a urinary acidifier. SYN: sal ammoniac.
dibasic a. phosphate (NH4)2HPO4;used for fireproofing, in baking powder, and as an antirheumatic.
a. ferric sulfate SYN: ferric a. sulfate.
a. ichthosulfonate SYN: ichthammol.
a. iodide NH4I;an expectorant.
a. mandelate mandelic acid a. salt; a urinary antiseptic.
a. molybdate used in electron microscopy as a negative stain, and as a reagent for alkaloids and other substances.
monobasic a. phosphate used in baking powder.
a. nitrate used in making nitrous oxide gas, in freezing mixtures, matches, and fertilizers; also used in veterinary medicine.
Excretion of urine that contains an excessive amount of ammonia. SYN: ammoniacal urine. [ammonia + G. ouron, urine]
The breaking of a chemical bond with the addition of the elements of ammonia (NH2 and H) at the point of breakage. [ammonia + G. lysis, dissolution]
The process or type of nitrogen excretion in which ammonia and ammonium ions are the primary form by which nitrogen is excreted from an organism. [ammonia + G. telos, end, outcome, + -ia]
Having the property of ammonotelism.
The excretion of ammonia and ammonium ions. Cf.:ammonotelia.
A disturbance in the memory of information stored in long-term memory, in contrast to short-term memory, manifested by total or partial inability to recall past experiences. [G. a., forgetfulness]
anterograde a. a. in reference to events occurring after the trauma or disease that caused the condition.
emotional a. psychological etiology of forgetting or repression of emotion.
lacunar a., localized a. a. in reference to isolated events.
posthypnotic a. selective forgetting, after a hypnotic state, of events occurring during hypnosis or of information stored in long-term memory, such as one's name, address, and names of relatives.
retrograde a. a. in reference to events that occurred before the trauma or disease that caused the condition.
transient global a. a memory disorder seen in middle aged and elderly persons characterized by an episode of a. and bewilderment that persists for several hours; during the episode the patient has a memory defect for present and recent past events, but is fully alert, oriented, capable of high-level intellectual activity, and has a normal neurological examination. Typically, these amnesic episodes occur spontaneously, and most patients experience only one; of uncertain etiology—probably ischemic, but not due to atherosclerosis.
traumatic a. the loss or disturbance of memory following an insult or injury to the brain of the type that accompanies a head injury, or excessive use of alcohol, or following the cessation of alcohol ingestion or other psychoactive drugs; or loss or disturbance of memory of the type seen in hysteria and other forms of dissociative disorders.
One suffering from amnesia.
Relating to or characterized by amnesia. SYN: amnestic (1) .
1. SYN: amnesic. 2. An agent causing amnesia.
The amnion. [G. amnion]
Transabdominal aspiration of fluid from the amniotic sac. [amnio- + G. kentesis, puncture]
amniochorial, amniochorionic (am′ne-o-kor′e-al, -kor-e-on′ik)
Relating to both amnion and chorion.
Formation of the amnion. [amnio- + G. genesis, production]
Radiography of the amniotic sac after the injection of radiopaque, water-soluble solution into the sac, which outlines the umbilical cord, the placenta, and the soft tissues of the fetal body; an obsolete technique. SEE ALSO: fetography. [amnio- + G. grapho, to write]
Instrument designed to tear a hole in the amnionic sac without injuring the fetus.
Infusion of warmed saline through an intrauterine catheter during labor, for umbilical cord compromise due to low volume of amnionic fluid, or for thick meconium in labor.
Broad flat mass on the skin resulting from antenatal adhesion of the amnion. [amnio- + G. -oma, tumor]
Innermost of the extraembryonic membranes enveloping the embryo in utero and containing the amniotic fluid; it consists of an internal embryonic layer with its ectodermal component, and an external somatic mesodermal component; in the later stages of pregnancy the a. expands to come in contact with and partially fuse to the inner wall of the chorionic vesicle; derived from the trophoblast cells. SYN: amnionic sac. [G. the membrane around the fetus, fr. amnios, lamb]
a. nodosum nodules in the a. that consist of typical stratified squamous epithelium. SYN: squamous metaplasia of a..
Relating to the amnion. SYN: amniotic.
Inflammation resulting from infection of the amniotic sac, which, in turn, commonly results from premature rupture of the membranes (a condition often associated with neonatal infection). [amnion + G. -itis, inflammation]
Escape of amniotic fluid. [amnio- + G. rhoia, flow]
Rupture of the amniotic membrane. [amnio- + G. rhexis, rupture]
An endoscope for studying amniotic fluid through the intact amniotic sac.
Examination of the amniotic fluid in the lowest part of the amniotic sac by means of an endoscope introduced through the cervical canal. [amnio- + G. skopeo, to view]
A group of vertebrates whose embryos are enclosed in an amnion; it includes all the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
An instrument for puncturing the fetal membranes. [amnio- + G. tome, cutting]
Artificial rupture of the fetal membranes as a means of inducing or expediting labor.
A central nervous system depressant with an intermediate duration of action; also used as the sodium salt.
In diagnostic ultrasound, a one-dimensional presentation of a reflected sound wave in which echo amplitude (A) is displayed along the vertical axis and echo delay (depth) along the horizontal axis; the echo information results from tissue interfaces along a single line in the direction of the sound beam.
amodiaquine hydrochloride (am-o-di′a-kwin)
An antimalarial drug, also used in the treatment of amebic hepatitis; large doses may result in sialorrhea, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, palpitations, spasticity, and possibly convulsions.
A genus of naked, lobose, pseudopod-forming protozoa of the class Sarcodina (or Rhizopoda), that are abundant soil-dwellers, especially in rich organic debris, and are also commonly found as parasites. The typical amebic parasites of humans are now placed in the genera Entamoeba, Endolimax, and Iodamoeba. SEE ALSO: Naegleria. [Mod. L. fr. G. amoibe change]
A. buccalis former name for Entamoeba gingivalis.
A. coli old, incorrect name Entamoeba coli.
A. dentalis former name for Entamoeba gingivalis.
A. dysenteriae old, incorrect name for Entamoeba histolytica.
A. histolytica old, incorrect name for Entamoeba histolytica.
A. proteus an abundant, nonparasitic species, remarkable for the number and varied shapes of its pseudopodia.
An active peptide released from Entamoeba histolytica that can insert ion channels into liposomes and possesses cytolytic and bactericidal activities. [amoeba + G. poros, passageway]
A genus of small intestinal tapeworms of birds, seldom possessing more than 30 segments. A. cuneata (A. sphenoides) is a species common in domestic fowl; its cysticercoid is developed in earthworms. [amoeb- + L. fr. G. tainia, band, tape, a tapeworm]