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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


amylopsin (am-il-op′sin)
The amylase of pancreatic juice.

amylorrhea (am′i-lo-re′a)
Passage of undigested starch in the stools, implying a deficiency of amylase activity in the intestine. [amylo- + G. rhoia, flow]

amylose (am′i-los)
An unbranched polyglucose (glucan) in starch, similar to cellulose, containing α(1→4) linkages. Cf.:amylopectin.

amylosuria (am′i-lo-soo′re-a)
Excretion of starch in the urine. SYN: amyluria.

amylo-(1,4→1,6)-transglucosidase, amylo-(1,4→1,6)-transglucosylase
SYN: 1,4-α-d-glucan-branching enzyme.

amylum (am′i-lum)
SYN: starch.

amyluria (am-i-loo′re-a)
SYN: amylosuria.

amyoesthesia, amyoesthesis (a-mi′o-es-the′ze-a, -the′sis)
Absence of muscle sensation. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + aisthesis, perception]

amyoplasia (a-mi-o-pla′ze-a)
Deficient formation of muscle tissue and deficient muscle growth. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + plasis, a molding] a. congenita SYN: arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

amyostasia (a-mi-o-sta′ze-a)
Difficulty in standing, due to muscular tremor or incoordination. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + stasis, standing]

amyostatic (a-mi-o-stat′ik)
Showing muscular tremors.

amyosthenia (a-mi′os-the′ne-a)
Muscular weakness. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + sthenos, strength]

amyosthenic (a-mi-os-then′ik)
Relating to or causing muscular weakness.

amyotaxy, amyotaxia (a-mi′o-tak-se, a-mi-o-tak′se-a)
Muscular ataxia. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + taxis, order]

amyotonia (a-mi-o-to′ne-a)
Generalized absence of muscle tone, usually associated with flabby musculature and an increased range of passive movement at joints. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + tonos, tone] a. congenita an indefinite term for a number of congenital neuromuscular disorders that cause generalized loss of muscle tone, and sometimes weakness, in infants and young children; most of these disorders have a benign course. SYN: congenital atonic pseudoparalysis, myatonia congenita, Oppenheim disease, Oppenheim syndrome.

amyotrophia (a-mi-o-tro′fe-a)
SYN: amyotrophy.

amyotrophic (a-mi-o-tro′fik)
Relating to muscular atrophy.

amyotrophy (a-mi-ot′ro-fe)
Muscular wasting or atrophy. SYN: amyotrophia. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + trophe, nourishment] diabetic a. a type of diabetic neuropathy that primarily affects elderly patients with diabetes mellitus; clinically characterized by unilateral or bilateral anterior thigh pain, weakness, and atrophy; of abrupt or gradual onset and, when bilateral, of simultaneous or sequential onset, and usually asymmetrical; one type of diabetic polyradiculopathy. Sometimes referred to, erroneously, as diabetic femoral neuropathy. hemiplegic a. muscular atrophy seen in hemiplegic limbs. neuralgic a. a neurological disorder, of unknown cause, characterized by the sudden onset of severe pain, usually about the shoulder and often beginning at night, soon followed by weakness and wasting of various forequarter muscles, particularly shoulder girdle muscles; both sporadic and familial in occurrence with the former much more common; often preceded by some antecedent event, such as an upper respiratory infection, hospitalization, vaccination, or nonspecific trauma; usually attributed to a brachial plexus lesion, because the nerve fibers involved are most often derived from the upper trunk, but actually multiple proximal mononeuropathies. SYN: acute brachial radiculitis, brachial neuritis, brachial plexitis, brachial plexus neuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, shoulder-girdle syndrome. progressive spinal a. SYN: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

amyous (am′e-us)
Lacking in muscular tissue, or in muscular strength. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle]

amyxorrhea (a-mik-so-re′a)
Absence of the normal secretion of mucus. [G. a- priv. + myxa, mucus, + rhoia, flow]

See a-.

Abbreviation for antinuclear antibody; American Nurses Association.

Up, again, back; sometimes an- before a vowel; corresponds to L. sursum-; CAUTION: an- before a vowel usually stands for a- meaning not; sometimes ana- becomes am- before p, b, or ph. [G. ana, up]

Anabaena (an-a-be′na)
A genus of Cyanobacteria found in fresh water that can cause odor in water supplies; although not invasive pathogens, they produce potent saxitoxinlike neurotoxins that can poison farm animals ingesting heavily infected pond water.

anabiosis (an′a-bi-o′sis)
Resuscitation after apparent death. [G. a reviving, fr. ana, again, + biosis, life]

anabiotic (an′a-bi-ot′ik)
1. Resuscitating or restorative. 2. A revivifying remedy; a powerful stimulant. [ana- + G. bios, life]

anabolic (an-a-bol′ik)
Relating to or promoting anabolism.

anabolism (a-nab′o-lizm)
1. The building up in the body of complex chemical compounds from smaller simpler compounds ( e.g., proteins from amino acids), usually with the use of energy. Cf.:catabolism, metabolism. 2. The sum of synthetic metabolic reactions. [G. anabole, a raising up]

anabolite (a-nab′o-lit)
Any substance formed as a result of anabolic processes.

anacamptometer (an-a-kamp-tom′e-ter)
Instrument for measuring the intensity of the deep reflexes. [G. anakampsis, a bending back, reflection, + metron, measure]

anacatesthesia (an′a-kat′es-the′ze-a)
A hovering sensation. [G. ana, up, + kata, down, + aisthesis, sensation]

anacidity (an-a-sid′i-te)
Absence of acidity; used especially to denote absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice.

anaclasis (a-nak′la-sis)
1. Reflection of light or sound. 2. Refraction of the ocular media. [G. a bending back, reflection]

anaclitic (an-a-klit′ik)
Leaning or depending upon; in psychoanalysis, relating to the dependence of the infant on the mother or mother substitute. See a. depression. [G. ana, toward, + klino, to lean]

anacrotic (an-a-krot′ik)
Referring to the upstroke or ascending limb of the arterial pulse tracing; an abbreviated form for anadicrotic, twice beating on the upstroke. SYN: anadicrotic.

anacrotism (a-nak′ro-tizm)
Peculiarity of the pulse wave. See anacrotic pulse. SYN: anadicrotism. [G. ana, up, + krotos, a beat]

anacusis (an′a-koo′sis)
Total loss or absence of the ability to perceive sound as such. SYN: anakusis. [G. an- priv. + akousis, hearing]

anadenia (an-a-de′ne-a)
Obsolete term for absence of glands or abeyance of glandular function. [G. an- priv. + aden, gland] a. ventriculi absence of glands from the stomach.

anadicrotic (an-a-di-krot′ik)
SYN: anacrotic.

anadicrotism (an-a-dik′ro-tizm)
SYN: anacrotism. [G. ana, up, + di-krotos, double beating]

anadidymus (an-a-did′i-mus)
SYN: duplicitas posterior. [G. ana, up, + didymos, twin]

anadipsia (an-a-dip′se-a)
Rarely used term for extreme thirst. SEE ALSO: polydipsia. [G. ana, intensive, + dipsa, thirst]

anadrenalism (an-a-dre′nal-izm)
Complete lack of adrenal function.

anadromous (an-a-dro′mus)
Migrating from ocean water to fresh water to spawn; some such fish harbor human pathogens. SEE ALSO: catadromous.

anaerobe (an′ar-ob, an-ar′ob)
A microorganism that can live and grow in the absence of oxygen. [G. an- priv. + aer, air, + bios, life] facultative a. an a. that either grows in the presence of air or under conditions of reduced oxygen tension. obligate a. an a. that will grow only in the absence of free oxygen.

anaerobic (an-ar-o′bik)
Relating to an anaerobe; living without oxygen.

anaerobiosis (an-ar-o-bi-o′sis)
Existence in an oxygen-free atmosphere. [G. an- priv. + aer, air, + biosis, way of living]

Anaeroboplasma (an-ar-o′bo-plaz′ma)
An order in the class Molicutes that is oxygen-sensitive. A role in human disease has not been defined.

anaerogenic (an-ar-o-jen′ik)
Not producing gas. [G. an- priv. + aer, air, + -gen, producing]

anaerophyte (an-ar′o-fit)
1. A plant that grows without air. 2. An anaerobic bacterium. [G. an- priv. + aer, air, + phyton, plant]

anaeroplasty (an-ar′o-plas-te)
Treatment of wounds by exclusion of air. [G. an- not + aer, air, + plastos, formed]

anagen (an′a-jen)
Growth phase of the hair cycle, lasting about 3–6 years in human scalp hair. [G. ana, up, + -gen, producing]

anagenesis (an-a-jen′e-sis)
1. Repair of tissue. 2. Regeneration of lost parts. [G. ana, up, + genesis, production]

anagenetic (an′a-je-net′ik)
Pertaining to anagenesis.

anagestone acetate (an-a-jes′ton)
A progestational agent.

Andreas, Cretan ophthalmologist, 1826–1897.

anagogy (an-a-go′je)
A rarely used term for psychic content of an idealistic or spiritual nature. [G. anagoge, fr. an- ago, to lead up]

anakatadidymus, anacatadidymus (an′a-kat-a-did′i-mus)
Conjoined twins united in the middle but separated above and below. SYN: dicephalus dipygus. [G. ana, up, + kata, down, + didymos, twin]

anákhré (an-ah-kra′)
SYN: goundou. [Fr. fr. Af. native term meaning “big nose”]

anakmesis (an-ak′me-sis)
Arrest of maturation of leukocytes in their production centers, thereby resulting in greater numbers of young forms and progressively smaller proportions of mature granular cells in the bone marrow, as observed in agranulocytosis. [G. an- priv. + akmenos, full grown, fr. akme, highest point]

anakusis (an-a-koo′sis)
SYN: anacusis.

anal (a′nal)
Relating to the anus.

analbuminemia (an′al-boo-mi-ne′me-a)
Absence of albumin from the serum. [G. an- priv. + albumin + G. haima, blood]

analeptic (an-a-lep′tik)
1. Strengthening, stimulating, or invigorating. 2. A restorative remedy. 3. A central nervous system stimulant, particularly used to denote agents that reverse depressed central nervous system function. [G. analeptikos, restorative]

analgesia (an-al-je′ze-a, an-al-jeprime;z-a)
A neurologic or pharmacologic state in which painful stimuli are so moderated that, though still perceived, they are no longer painful. Cf.:anesthesia. [G. insensibility, fr. an- priv. + algesis, sensation of pain] conduction a. SYN: regional anesthesia. inhalation a. a. produced by inhalation of a central nervous system depressant gas (especially nitrous oxide) or vapor. patient-controlled a. (PCA) a method for control of pain based upon a pump for the constant intravenous or, less frequently, epidural infusion of a dilute narcotic solution that includes a mechanism for the self-administration at predetermined intervals of a predetermined amount of the narcotic solution should the infusion fail to relieve pain. SYN: outpatient anesthesia, patient-controlled anesthesia. spinal a. euphemism for spinal anesthesia.

analgesic (an-al-je′zik)
1. A compound capable of producing analgesia, i.e., one that relieves pain by altering perception of nociceptive stimuli without producing anesthesia or loss of consciousness. SYN: analgetic (1) . 2. Characterized by reduced response to painful stimuli. SYN: antalgic.

analgesimeter (an′al-je-zim′i-ter)
A device for eliciting painful stimuli in order to measure pain under experimental conditions. [analgesia + G. metron, measure]

analgetic (an-al-jet′ik)
1. SYN: analgesic (1) . 2. Associated with decreased pain perception.

anality (a-nal′i-te)
Referring to the psychic organization derived from, and characteristic of, the freudian anal period of psychosexual development.

anallergic (an-a-ler′jik)
Not allergic.


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