|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
1. One of two organs or parts in different species of animals or plants that differ in structure or development but are similar in function. 2. A compound that resembles another in structure but is not necessarily an isomer ( e.g., 5-fluorouracil is an a. of thymine); analogs are often used to block enzymatic reactions by combining with enzymes ( e.g., isopropyl thiogalactoside vs. lactose). SYN: analogue. [G. analogos, proportionate] enzyme a. SYN: synzyme.
Possessing a functional resemblance, but having a different origin or structure.
analphalipoproteinemia (an-al′fa-lip′o-pro′ten-e′me-a) [MIM*205400]
High-density lipoprotein deficiency; a heritable disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by almost complete absence from plasma of high density lipoproteins, and by storage of cholesterol esters in foam cells, tonsillar enlargement, an orange or yellow-gray color of the pharyngeal and rectal mucosa, hepatosplenomegaly, lymph node enlargement, corneal opacity, and peripheral neuropathy; autosomal recessive inheritance. SYN: familial high density lipoprotein deficiency, Tangier disease. [G. an-, priv., + alpha, α, + lipoprotein + -emia, blood]
In psychoanalysis, the person being analyzed. [analysis + L. -andus, gerundive ending]
analysis, pl .analyses (a-nal′i-sis, -sez)
1. The breaking up of a chemical compound or mixture into simpler elements; a process by which the composition of a substance is determined. 2. The examination and study of a whole in terms of the parts composing it. 3. See psychoanalysis. [G. a breaking up, fr. ana, up, + lysis, a loosening] accumulation a. a technique in which an intermediate of a metabolic pathway accumulates due to selective inhibition of a particular step in that pathway or in a mutant that is deficient in a certain step. The intermediate is then isolated, analyzed, and identified. activation a. the identification and quantification of unknown elements from their characteristic emissions and decay constants after they have been made radioactive by exposure to neutron or charged particle radiation. amino acid a. 1. determination and identification of amino acid content of a macromolecule; 2. identification of a specific amino acid in macromolecules, often a mutated protein; 3. identification and quantitation of amino acid content in blood plasma or urine; a key diagnostic aid. bite a. SYN: occlusal a.. blood gas a. the direct electrode measurement of the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. bradykinetic a. the a. of a movement by means of slow cinematography. breath a. SYN: breath test. cephalometric a. a study of the skeletal and dental relationships used in orthodontic case a.. character a. a. of the defenses and personality traits that characterize an individual. cluster a. a set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly interrelated subgroups. content a. any of a variety of techniques for classification and study of the verbal products of normal or of psychologically disabled individuals. decision a. a derivative of operations research and game theory that involves identifying all available choices and the potential outcomes of each, in a series of decisions that have to be made about patient care—diagnostic procedures, therapeutic regimens, prognostic expectations; the range of choices can be plotted on a decision tree. didactic a. SYN: training a.. discriminant a. a statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values; an alternative to regression a.. displacement a. SYN: competitive binding assay. distributive a. the a. of information gained about the patient and its distribution by the physician, as indicated by the patient's complaint and symptoms. Downs a. a series of cephalometric criteria used as an aid in orthodontic diagnosis. ego a. psychoanalytic study of the ways in which the ego deals with intrapsychic conflicts. Fourier a. a mathematical approximation of a function as the sum of periodic functions (sine and/or cosine waves) of different frequencies; a method of converting a function of time or space into a function of frequency; used in reconstruction of images in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in radiology and in a. of any kind of signal for its frequency content. SYN: Fourier transfer, Fourier transform. gastric a. measurement of pH and acid output of stomach contents; basal acid output can be determined by collecting the overnight gastric secretion or by a 1-hr collection; maximal acid output is determined following injection of histamine; output is measured by titration with a strong base. intention-to-treat a. method of analyzing results of a randomized controlled trial that includes in the a. all the cases that should have received a treatment regimen but for whatever reason did not do so. All cases allocated to each arm of the trial are analyzed together as representing that treatment arm, whether or not they received or completed the prescribed regimen. interaction process a. in psychology, a. of small group behavior in terms of 12 specific categories, e.g., solidarity, tension release, agreement. Kaplan-Meier a. a method of calculating survival of a patient population in which the increments are the actual survival times of the patients. linkage a. the assessment of the linkage relationship between two loci by the examination of data in pedigrees. The classical concern is with estimating recombination fractions and (because of its elasticity, efficiency, and other optimal properties) the preferred method is maximum likelihood estimation. However, there are other more modern concerns, notably determining the order of loci, testing for additive and interactive properties in the mapping function, and reconciling the pedigree data with evidence from other methods ( e.g., cytogenetics, in situ hybridization studies, etc.). Northern blot a. a procedure similar to the Southern blot a., used to separate and identify RNA fragments; typically via transferring (blotting) RNA fragments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter followed by detection with a suitable probe. [coined to distinguish it from eponymic Southern blot a.] occlusal a. a study of the relations of the occlusal surfaces of opposing teeth and their effect upon related structures. SYN: bite a.. path a. a mode of a. involving assumptions about the direction of causal relationships among linked sequences and configurations of variables. pedigree a. the formal study of the pattern of a trait in a pedigree to determine such properties as its mode of inheritance, age of onset, and variability in phenotype. percept a. psychologic survey of an individual's personality using Rorschach series of inkblots. qualitative a. determination of the nature, as opposed to the quantity, of each of the elements composing a substance. quantitative a. determination of the amount, as well as the nature, of each of the elements composing a substance. regression a. the statistical method of finding the &dquor;best&dquor; mathematical model to describe one variable as a function of another. saturation a. SYN: competitive binding assay. segregation a. in genetics, the enumeration of progeny according to distinct and mutually exclusive phenotypes; used as a test of a putative pattern of inheritance, e.g., mendelian, dominant autosomal, epistatic, age-dependent. sequential a. a statistical method that allows an experiment to be ended as soon as a result of desired precision is obtained. Southern blot a. a procedure to separate and identify DNA sequences; DNA fragments are separated by electrophoresis on an agarose gel, transferred (blotted) onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane, and hybridized with complementary (labeled) nucleic acid probes. survival a. a class of statistical procedures for estimating survival rates and making inferences about effects of treatment, prognostic factors, etc. training a. psychoanalytic treatment for the purpose of training of an analytic candidate carried out under the official auspices of a psychoanalytic training institute. SYN: didactic a.. transactional a. a psychotherapy system, used in both individual and group treatment, involving a systematic understanding of the qualities of interpersonal interactions in the treatment sessions; includes four components: 1) structural a. of intrapsychic phenomena; 2) transactional a. proper, determination of the currently dominant ego state (parent, child, or adult) of each participant; 3) game a., identification of the games played in their interactions and of the gratifications provided; 4) script a., uncovering of the causes of the patient's emotional problems. a. of variance (ANOVA) a statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contribution of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable. volumetric a. quantitative a. by the addition of graduated amounts of a standard test solution to a solution of a known amount of the substance analyzed, until the reaction is just at an end; depends upon the stoichiometric nature of the reaction between the test solution and the unknown. Western blot a. a procedure in which proteins separated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels are transferred (blotted) onto nitrocellulose or nylon membranes and identified by specific complexing with antibodies that are either pre- or posttagged with a labeled secondary protein. SEE ALSO: immunoblot. SYN: Western blot, Western blotting. [coined to distinguish it from eponymic Southern blot a.] zoo blot a. a procedure using Southern blot a. to test the ability of a nucleic acid probe from one species to hybridize with the DNA fragment of another species.
1. One who makes analytic determinations. 2. Short term for psychoanalyst.
Any material or chemical substance subjected to analysis.
analytic, analytical (an-a-lit′-ik, -i-kal)
1. Relating to analysis. 2. Relating to psychoanalysis.
analyzer, analyzor (an′a-liz-er, -or)
1. Any instrument that performs an analysis. 2. The prism in a polariscope by means of which the polarized light is examined. 3. The neural basis of the conditioned reflex; includes all of the sensory side of the reflex arc and its central connections. 4. A device that electronically determines the frequency and amplitude of a particular channel of an electroencephalogram. batch a. a discrete automated chemical a. in which the instrument system sequentially performs a single test on each of a group of samples. centrifugal fast a. an automatic spectrophotometer that uses centrifugal force to mix samples and reagents, and propels the reactants at high speed in view of a detector that makes multiple absorbance readings. continuous flow a. an automated chemical a. in which the samples and reagents are pumped continuously through a system of modules interconnected by tubing. discrete a. an automated chemical a. in which the instrument performs tests on samples that are kept in discrete containers in contrast to a continuous flow a.. kinetic a. an instrument that measures the rate of change in a chemical substance; used mainly for enzyme measurement. pulse height a. electronic circuitry that determines the energy of scintillations recorded by a detector, allowing use of a discriminator to select for photons of a specific type. wave a. an apparatus that assesses a complex mixture of wave forms by separating out their component frequencies and displaying their distribution.
1. The act of remembering. 2. The medical or developmental history of a patient. [G. a., recollection]
1. Assisting the memory. SYN: mnemonic. 2. Relating to the medical history of a patient.
anamnionic, anamniotic (an-am-ne-on′ik, -ot′ik)
Without an amnion.
A group of vertebrates whose embryos are not enclosed in an amnion; it includes the cyclostomes, fish, and amphibians.
A somatic or reproductive structure that originates without nuclear recombination (asexual reproduction); the imperfect part of the life cycle of fungi. [G. ana, up, + morphe, form]
1. In phylogeny, a progressive series of changes in the evolution of a group of animals or plants. 2. In optics, the process of correcting a distorted image with a curved mirror. [G. ana, up, + morphe, form]
Inability to stand up. [G. a- priv. + anastasis, stand up]
Any form of repetitious stereotyped behavior which, if prevented, results in anxiety. [G. anankasma, compulsion]
An obsession in which a person feels forced to act or think against her or his will. [G. anankastos, compelled]
Pertaining to anancasm or anancastia.
Absence of masculinity. [G. want of manhood, fr. an- priv. + aner- (andr-), man]
Imperfect vascularization of a part due to nonformation of vessels, or vessels with inadequate caliber. [G. an- priv. + angeion, vessel, + plastos, formed]
Relating to, characterized by, or due to anangioplasia.
Abbreviation for anionic neutrophil-activating peptide.
The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes move from the equatorial plate toward the poles of the cell. In mitosis a full set of daughter chromosomes (46 in humans) moves toward each pole. In the first division of meiosis one member of each homologous pair (23 in humans), consisting of two chromatids united at the centromere, moves toward each pole. In the second division of meiosis the centromere divides, and the two chromatids separate with one moving to each pole. [G. ana, up, + phasis, appearance]
anaphia (an-a′fe-a, an-af′e-a)
Absence of the sense of touch. SYN: anhaphia. [G. an- priv. + haphe, touch]
Movement of negatively charged particles (anions) in a solution or suspension toward the anode in electrophoresis. Cf.:cataphoresis. [G. ana, up + phoresis, a being borne]
Relating to anaphoresis (1).
1. Relating to anaphrodisia. 2. Repressing or destroying sexual desire. 3. An agent that lessens or abolishes sexual desire. SYN: antaphrodisiac, antaphroditic (1) . [G. an- priv. + aphrodisia, sexual pleasure]
Relating to anaphylaxis; manifesting extremely great sensitivity to foreign protein or other material.
A substance (antigen) capable of rendering an individual susceptible to anaphylaxis; a substance (antigen) that will cause an anaphylactic reaction in such a sensitized individual.
The production of anaphylaxis.
Producing anaphylaxis; pertaining to substances (antigens) that result in an individual becoming susceptible to anaphylaxis.
Resembling anaphylaxis. SYN: pseudoanaphylactic. [anaphylaxis + G. eidos, resemblance]
Low molecular weight substances generated by the activation of complement; the biologically active complement components are derived from C3, C4, and C5 and lead to increased vascular permeability as a result of the degranulation of primarily mast cells; release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity (Type I), i.e., histamine, follows mast cell degranulation. SYN: anaphylotoxin. [anaphylaxis + toxin]
An α-globulin (MW 300,000) which destroys the activity of the anaphylatoxic complement fragments. See anaphylatoxin.
An induced systemic or generalized sensitivity; at times the term a. is used for anaphylactic shock. The term is commonly used to denote the immediate, transient kind of immunologic (allergic) reaction characterized by contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries due to release of pharmacologically active substances (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, and slow-reacting substance), classically initiated by the combination of antigen (allergen) with mast-cell–fixed, cytophilic antibody (chiefly IgE); the reaction can be initiated, also, by relatively large quantities of serum aggregates (antigen-antibody complexes, and others) that seemingly activate complement leading to production of anaphylatoxins. SYN: anaphylactic reaction. [G. ana, away from, back from, + phylaxis, protection] active a. reaction following inoculation of antigen in a subject previously sensitized to the specific antigen, in contrast to passive a.. aggregate a. an anaphylactic reaction initiated by the formation of antigen-antibody complexes that activate complement. antiserum a. SYN: passive a.. chronic a. SYN: enteritis anaphylactica. generalized a. the immediate response, involving smooth muscles and capillaries throughout the body of a sensitized individual, that follows intravenous (and occasionally intracutaneous) injection of antigen (allergen). SEE ALSO: anaphylactic shock. SYN: systemic a.. inverse a. anaphylactic shock in an animal ( e.g., guinea pig) whose tissues contain Forssman antigen, resulting from an intravenous injection of serum that contains Forssman antibody. local a. the immediate, transient kind of response that follows the injection of antigen (allergen) into the skin of a sensitized individual and is limited to the area surrounding the site of inoculation. SEE ALSO: skin test. passive a. a reaction resulting from inoculation of antigen in an animal previously inoculated intravenously with specific antiserum from another animal, a latent period being required between the two inoculations. SYN: antiserum a.. passive cutaneous a. (PCA) a reaction that occurs in the guinea pig when antiserum is injected into the skin and, 6–24 hours later, specific antigen and a dye such as Pontamine blue or Evans blue are inoculated intravenously; the size of the blue areas at the sites of the antibody injections is a measure of the degree of altered permeability to dye-bound albumin. reversed a. SYN: reversed passive a.. reversed passive a. an anaphylactic reaction induced in an animal injected with a specific antigen, which will bind to reactive tissue, and then, after a latent period, with serum from another animal previously sensitized to the identical antigen. SYN: reversed a.. systemic a. SYN: generalized a..
Loss of structural differentiation, especially as seen in most, but not all, malignant neoplasms. SYN: dedifferentiation (2) . [G. ana, again, + plasis, a molding]
1. Relating to anaplasty. 2. Characterized by or pertaining to anaplasia. 3. Growing without form or structure.
Application of prosthetic materials for construction and/or reconstruction of a missing body part. [G. ana, again, + plastos, formed]
The process of replenishment of depleted metabolic cycle or pathway intermediates; most commonly referring to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. [G. filling up, fr. ana-, up, + plerosis, filling, fr. pleroo, to fill]
Referring to reactions or pathways that contribute to anaplerosis.
An accessory spinal process of a vertebra, found especially in the thoracic or lumbar vertebrae. [G. ana, back, + apophysis, offshoot]
Relating to anaphia.
Aphasia characterized by an inability to count or use numbers. [G. an- priv. + arithmos, number]
Loss of the power of articulate speech. SEE ALSO: aphasia, alexia, dysarthria. [G. fr. an-anthos, without joints; (of sound) inarticulate]
A generalized infiltration of edema fluid into subcutaneous connective tissue. SYN: hydrosarca. [G. ana, through, + sarx (sark-), flesh] fetoplacental a. edema of fetus and placenta as found in fetal hydrops.
Characterized by anasarca.
1. Lenses in which astigmatism is corrected. 2. Lenses in which both astigmatism and field curvature are corrected.
Obsolete term for the gaping of a wound. [G. a., the laying bare of a wound]
1. To open one structure into another directly or by connecting channels, said of blood vessels, lymphatics, and hollow viscera; also incorrectly applied to nerves. 2. To unite by means of an anastomosis, or connection between formerly separate structures.
anastomosis, pl .anastomoses (a-nas′to-mo′sis, -sez)
1. A natural communication, direct or indirect, between two blood vessels or other tubular structures. See communication. 2. An operative union of two structures ( e.g., vessels, ureters, nerves). 3. An opening created by surgery, trauma, or disease between two or more normally separate spaces or organs. [G. a., from anastomoo, to furnish with a mouth] acromial a. of the thoracoacromial artery [TA] a vascular network between the acromion and the skin of the shoulder, formed by anastomoses of the acromial branch of the suprascapular artery with the acromial branch of the thoracoacromial artery. SYN: rete acromiale arteriae thoracoacromialis [TA] , acromial arterial network, acromial plexus. arteriolovenular a. [TA] vessels through which blood is shunted from arterioles to venules without passing through the capillaries. The term “arteriovenous a.” is widely used, but not preferred, since the connection is between arterioles and venules rather than arteries and veins. SYN: a. arteriolovenularis&star, a. arteriovenosa, arteriovenous a.. a. arteriolovenularis arteriolovenular a.. a. arteriovenosa SYN: arteriolovenular a.. arteriovenous a. (ava) SYN: arteriolovenular a.. Béclard a. SYN: ranine a.. bevelled a. a. performed after cutting each of the structures to be joined in an oblique fashion. Billroth I a. reestablishment of intestinal continuity by a gastroduodenostomy. SEE ALSO: Billroth operation I. Billroth II a. reestablishment of intestinal continuity by a loop gastrojejunostomy. SEE ALSO: Billroth operation II. Braun a. after a loop gastroenterostomy, a. between afferent and efferent loops of jejunum. calcaneal a. [TA] a superficial network over the calcaneus, formed by branches of the peroneal and posterior tibial arteries and twigs from the malleolar retia. SYN: rete calcaneum [TA] , calcaneal arterial network. cavopulmonary a. a means of palliating cyanotic heart disease by anastomosing the right pulmonary artery to the superior vena cava. SYN: cavopulmonary shunt, Glenn shunt. Clado a. a. in the right suspensory ligament of the ovary between the appendicular and ovarian arteries. conjoined a. the joining together of two small blood vessels by side-to-side elliptical a. to create a single larger stoma for subsequent end-to-end a.. cruciate a., crucial a. a four-way a. between branches of the first perforating branch of the deep femoral, inferior gluteal, and medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries, located posterior to the upper part of the femur. Formerly described as common, investigations show it rarely occurs in the four-way “cross” pattern. cubital a. [TA] vascular networks in the region of the elbow, composed of anastomoses between branches of the radial and middle collateral, superior and inferior ulnar collateral, radial recurrent, interosseous recurrent, and recurrent ulnar arteries. SYN: rete articulare cubiti [TA] , articular vascular network of elbow. Damus-Stancel-Kaye a. SYN: Damus-Kaye-Stancel procedure. elliptical a. a modification of direct a. whereby one or both tubular structures are spatulated beforehand, thus creating an ellipse of greater cross-sectional as well as circumferential dimension than would be possible with a bevelled or circular a.. end-to-end a. a. performed after cutting each structure to be joined in a plane perpendicular to the ultimate flow through the structures. Galen a. SYN: communicating branch of internal laryngeal nerve with recurrent laryngeal nerve. genicular a. [TA] an arterial network over the front and sides of the knee, formed by branches of the descending genicular artery, of the five genicular arteries from the popliteal, of the anterior tibial recurrent, and of the fibular circumflex branches of the posterior tibial. SYN: rete articulare genus [TA] , articular vascular network of knee. Hofmeister-Pólya a. See Hofmeister operation, Pólya operation. Hoyer anastomoses SYN: Sucquet-Hoyer canals, under canal. Hyrtl a. SYN: Hyrtl loop. intermesenteric arterial anastomoses SYN: intestinal arterial arcades, under arcade. intestinal a. SYN: enteroenterostomy. isoperistaltic a. an a. allowing flow of contents in the same and normal direction. Jacobson a. a portion of the tympanic plexus. Martin-Gruber a. a nerve anomaly in the forearm, consisting of a median to ulnar nerve communication; Also referred to as a median-to-ulnar crossover. microvascular a. a. of very small blood vessels performed under a surgical microscope. patellar a. [TA] the superficial portion of the articular vascular network of the knee. SYN: rete patellare [TA] , patellar network. portacaval anastomoses SYN: portal-systemic anastomoses. portal-systemic anastomoses 1. naturally-occurring venous communications between tributaries of the portal venous system and tributaries of the systemic venous system. The major portal-systemic anastomoses include: 1) esophageal branches of left gastric vein with esophageal veins, 2) superior rectal vein with middle and inferior rectal veins, 3) paraumbilical veins with subcutaneous veins of anterior abdominal wall, 4) retroperitoneal veins with venous branches of veins of the colon and bare area of the liver, and 5) a patent ductus venosus connecting left branch of portal vein to inferior vena cava (rare). These anastomoses are important clinically, providing collateral circulation during portal obstruction or hypertension, although they may become varicose; See caput medusae, esophageal varices, under varix, hemorrhoids. 2. surgically-created communications between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava or their tributaries, to relieve portal hypertension. SYN: portacaval anastomoses. postcostal a. longitudinal a. of intersegmental arteries giving rise to the vertebral artery. Potts a. SYN: Potts operation. precapillary a. an a. between arterioles just before they become capillaries. precostal a. (pre-kos′-tal) longitudinal a. of intersegmental arteries in the embryo that gives rise to the thyrocervical and costocervical trunks. pulmonary artery a. a. of the pulmonary artery; 40–50% are associated with congenital heart defects. ranine a. an a. between the right and the left end-branch of the deep lingual artery. SYN: arcus raninus, Béclard a.. Riolan a. the specific portion of the marginal artery of the colon connecting the middle and left colic arteries. SYN: Riolan arc (3) . Roux-en-Y a. a. of the distal end of the divided jejunum to the stomach, bile duct, or another structure, with implantation of the proximal end into the side of the jejunum at a suitable distance (usually greater than 40 cm) below the first a., the bowel then forming a Y-shaped pattern. Schmidel anastomoses abnormal channels of communication between the caval and portal venous systems. sequential a. two or more anastomoses fashioned from a single conduit, e.g., two or more coronary arteries from a single vein graft or mammary artery. Sucquet anastomoses SYN: Sucquet-Hoyer canals, under canal. Sucquet-Hoyer anastomoses SYN: Sucquet-Hoyer canals, under canal. terminoterminal a. an operation by which the central end of an artery is connected with the peripheral end of the corresponding vein, and the peripheral end of the artery with the central end of the vein. transureteroureteral a. SYN: transureteroureterostomy. ureteroileal a. a. between the ureter and an isolated segment of ileum. SEE ALSO: Bricker operation. ureterosigmoid a. a. between the ureter and a segment or entire sigmoid colon. SEE ALSO: ureterosigmoidostomy. ureteroureteral a. a. from one part of a ureter to another part of the same ureter.
Pertaining to an anastomosis.
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