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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


animation (an-i-ma′shun)
1. The state of being alive. 2. Liveliness; high spirits. [L. animo, pp. -atus, to make alive; anima, breath, soul] suspended a. a temporary state resembling death, with cessation of respiration; may also refer to certain forms of hibernation in animals or to endospore formation by some bacteria.

animatism (an′i-ma-tizm)
Attribution of mental or spiritual qualities to both living beings and nonliving things. SEE ALSO: animism.

animism (an′i-mizm)
The view that all things in nature, both animate and inanimate, contain a spirit or soul; held by primitive peoples and young children. SEE ALSO: animatism. [L. anima, soul]

animus (an′i-mus)
1. An animating or energizing spirit. 2. Intention to do something; disposition. 3. In psychiatry, a spirit of active hostility or grudge. 4. The ideal image toward which a person strives. 5. In jungian psychology, a male archetype in a woman. Cf.:anima (2) . [L. a., breath, rational soul in man, will]

anion (A−) (an′i-on)
An ion that carries a negative charge, going therefore to the positively charged anode; in salts, acid radicals are anions.

anion exchange
The process by which an anion in a mobile (liquid) phase exchanges with another anion previously bound to a solid, positively charged phase, the latter being an anion exchanger. It takes place when Cl− is exchanged for OH− in desalting. The reaction is Cl− (in solution) + (OH− on anion exchanger+) → (Cl− on anion exchanger) + OH− (in solution); combined with cation exchange, NaCl is removed from solution. A. may also be used chromatographically, to separate anions, and medicinally, to remove an anion ( e.g., Cl−) from gastric contents or bile acids in the intestine.

anion exchanger
An insoluble solid, usually a polystyrene or a polysaccharide, with cation groups ( e.g., &cbond;NR3+ or &cbond;NR2H+), which can attract and hold anions that pass by in a moving solution in exchange for anions previously held.

anionic (an-i-on′ik)
Referring to a negatively charged ion.

anionotropy (an′-i-on-ot′ro-pe)
The migration of a negative ion in tautomeric changes.

aniridia (an-i-rid′e-a) [MIM*106200]
Absence of the iris; when congenital, a rudimentary iris root is usually present. About 60% of cases are inherited as autosomal dominant, although somewhat irregularly manifested. Cf.:irideremia. [G. an- priv. + irid- + -ia]

anisakiasis (an′i-sa-ki′a-sis)
Infection of the intestinal wall by larvae of Anisakis marina and other genera of anisakid nematodes (Contracaecum, Phocanema), characterized by intestinal eosinophilic granuloma and symptoms like those of peptic ulcer or tumor. SYN: herring-worm disease. [G. anisos, unequal, + akis, a point, + -iasis, condition]

anisakid (an-i-sa′kid)
Common name for nematodes of the family Anisakidae.

Anisakidae (an-i-sa′ki-de)
Family of large nematode worms (superfamily Heterocheilidae) found in the stomach and intestines of fish-eating birds and marine mammals, infection being acquired from marine fish; human cases of anisakiasis have been reported from Japan. SEE ALSO: Anisakis.

Anisakis (an-i-sa′kis)
Genus of nematodes (family Anisakidae) that includes many common parasites of marine fish-eating birds and marine mammals. [G. anisos, unequal, + akis, a point]

anisate (an′i-sat)
A salt of anisic acid, usually possessing antiseptic properties.

anise (an′is)
The fruit of Pimpinellla anisum (family Umbelliferae); an aromatic and carminative resembling fennel.

aniseikonia (an′i-si-ko′ne-a)
An ocular condition in which the image of an object in one eye differs in size or shape from the image of the same object in the fellow eye. SYN: unequal retinal image. [G. anisos, unequal, + eikon, an image]

anisic (an-is′ik)
Relating to anise.

anisic acid (an-is′ik)
A crystalline volatile acid obtained from anise; its compounds are the antiseptic anisates. SYN: 4-methoxybenzoic acid.

anisindione (an′i-sin-di′on)
An anticoagulant with pharmacologic actions similar to those of phenindone and bishydroxycoumarin.

Unequal, dissimilar, unlike. [G. anisos, unequal, fr. an-, not, + isos, equal]

anisoaccommodation (an-i′so-a-kom-o-da′shun)
Variation between the two eyes in accommodation capacity. [aniso- + L. accommodo, to adapt]

anisochromasia (an-i′so-kro-ma′ze-a)
The unequal distribution of hemoglobin in the red blood cells, such that the periphery is pigmented and the central region is virtually colorless, as observed in films of blood from persons with certain forms of anemia caused by deficiency of iron; normal red blood cells show mild a. because of their biconcave shape. [aniso- + G. chroma, color]

anisochromatic (an-i′so-kro-mat′ik)
Not uniformly of one color.

anisocoria (an-i-so-ko′re-a)
A condition in which the two pupils are not of equal size. [aniso- + G. kore, pupil] essential a. SYN: simple a.. physiologic a. SYN: simple a.. simple a. a common (20% of normals) benign inequality of the pupils that may change from one hour to the next. SYN: essential a., physiologic a., simple-central a.. simple-central a. SYN: simple a..

anisocytosis (an-i′so-si-to′sis)
Considerable variation in the size of cells that are normally uniform, especially with reference to red blood cells. [aniso- + G. kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

anisodactylous (an-i′so-dak′ti-lus)
Relating to anisodactyly.

anisodactyly (an-i′so-dak′ti-le)
Unequal length in corresponding fingers. [aniso- + G. daktylon, finger]

anisogamy (an′-i-sog′a-me)
Fusion of two gametes unequal in size or form; fertilization as distinguished from isogamy or conjugation. [aniso- + G. gamos, marriage]

anisognathous (an-i-sog′na-thus)
Having jaws of unequal size, the upper being wider than the lower. [aniso- + G. gnathos, jaw]

anisokaryosis (an-i′so-kar-e-o′sis)
Variation in size of nuclei, greater than the normal range for a tissue. [aniso- + G. karyon, nut (nucleus), + -osis, condition]

anisole (an′i-sol)
Obtained from anisic acid; used in perfumery.

anisomastia (an-i-so-mas′te-a)
Breasts of unequal size. [aniso- + G. mastos, breast]

anisomelia (an-i-so-me′le-a)
A condition of inequality between two paired limbs. [aniso- + G. melos, limb]

anisometropia (an-i′so-me-tro′pe-a)
A difference in the refractive power of the two eyes. [aniso- + G. metron, measure, + ops, sight]

anisometropic (an-i′so-me-trop′ik)
1. Relating to anisometropia. 2. Having eyes of unequal refractive power.

anisopiesis (an-i-so-pi-e′sis)
Unequal arterial blood pressure on the two sides of the body. [aniso- + G. piesis, pressure]

anisorrhythmia (an-i-so-ridth′me-a)
Irregular action of the heart, or absence of synchronism in the rate of atria and ventricles. [aniso- + G. rhythmos, rhythm]

anisosphygmia (an-i-so-sfig′me-a)
Difference in volume, force, or time of the pulse in the corresponding arteries on two sides of the body, e.g., the two radials, or femorals. [aniso- + G. sphygmos, pulse]

anisosthenic (an-i-sos-then′ik)
Of unequal strength; denoting two muscles or groups of muscles that are either paired or are antagonists. [aniso- + G. sthenos, strength]

anisotonic (an-i-so-ton′ik)
Not having equal tension; having unequal osmotic pressure. [aniso- + G. tonus, tension]

anisotropic (an-i-so-trop′ik)
Not having properties that are the same in all directions. [aniso- + G. tropos, a turning]

anisotropine methylbromide (an′i-so-tro′pen)
An anticholinergic and intestinal antispasmodic.

Nikolai, Russian pathologist, 1885–1964. See A. cell, A. myocyte.

ankle (ang′kl)
1. SYN: a. joint. 2. The region of the a. joint. 3. SYN: talus.

Bent, crooked, stiff, fused, fixed, closed. SEE ALSO: ancylo-. [G. ankylos, bent, crooked; ankylosis, stiffening of the joints, fr. ankos, a bend, a hollow]

ankyloblepharon (ang′ki-lo-blef′a-ron)
Congenital or acquired adhesion of the upper and lower eyelid by bands of tissue. SYN: blepharocoloboma, filiform adnatum. [ankylo- + G. blepharon, eyelid]

ankylodactyly, ankylodactylia (ang′ki-lo-dak′ti-le, -dak-til′e-a)
Adhesion between two or more fingers or toes. SEE ALSO: syndactyly. [ankylo- + G. daktylos, finger]

ankyloglossia (ang′ki-lo-glos′e-a) [MIM 106280]
Partial or complete fusion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth; abnormal shortness of the frenulum linguae. SYN: tongue-tie. [ankylo- + G. glossa, tongue]

ankylomele (ang′ki-lo-me′le)
A curved or bent probe. [ankylo- + G. mele, probe]

ankylosed (ang′ki-lost)
Stiffened; bound by adhesions; denoting a joint in a state of ankylosis.

ankylosis (ang′ki-lo′sis)
Stiffening or fixation of a joint as the result of a disease process, with fibrous or bony union across the joint. [G. a., stiffening of a joint] artificial a. SYN: arthrodesis. bony a. SYN: synostosis. dental a. bony union of the radicular surface of a tooth to the surrounding alveolar bone in an area of previous partial root resorption. extracapsular a. stiffness of a joint due to induration or heterotopic ossification of the surrounding tissues. SYN: spurious a.. false a. SYN: fibrous a.. fibrous a. stiffening of a joint due to the presence of fibrous bands between and about the bones forming the joint. SYN: false a., pseudankylosis. intracapsular a. stiffness of a joint due to the presence of bony or fibrous adhesions between the articular surfaces of the joint. spurious a. SYN: extracapsular a.. true a. SYN: synostosis.

Ankylostoma (ang-ki-los′to-ma)
1. SYN: Ancylostoma. 2. SYN: trismus. [ankylo- + G. stoma, mouth]

ankylostomiasis (ang′ki-lo-sto-mi′a-sis)
SYN: ancylostomiasis.

ankylotic (ang-ki-lot′ik)
Characterized by or pertaining to ankylosis.

ankyrin (ang′ki-rin)
An erythrocyte membranal protein that binds spectrin. A deficiency in a. may lead to a type of hereditary spherocytosis. SYN: anchorin, syndein. [G. ankyra, anchor, + -in]

ankyroid (an′ki-royd)
SYN: ancyroid.

anlage, pl .anlagen (ahn′lah-ge, -gen)
1. SYN: primordium. 2. In psychoanalysis, genetic predisposition to a given trait or personality characteristic. [Ger. plan, outline]


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