|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
anthelix (ant′he-liks, an′the-liks)
SYN: antihelix. [anti- + G. helix, coil]
SYN: anthelmintic (1) .
anthelmintic (ant-hel-min′tik, an-thel-)
1. An agent that destroys or expels intestinal worms. SYN: anthelminthic, antihelminthic, helminthagogue, helminthic (2) , helmintic (2) , vermifuge. 2. Having the power to destroy or expel intestinal worms. SYN: vermifugal. [anti- + G. helmins, worm]
SYN: urogastrone. a. E SYN: enterogastrone. a. U SYN: urogastrone.
The male gametangium produced in the teleomorph part of the life cycle of fungi. [Mod. L. anthera, flower, fr. G antheros, blooming, fr. antheo, to bloom, + dim. suffix -idium, fr. G. -idion]
Used in the treatment of filariasis and schistosomiasis.
A group of floral pigments, existing as glycosides in combination with glucose or cellobiose molecules, that range from red to blue and are often pH dependent; soluble in water and alcohol but not in ether. A. are divided into derivatives of pelargonidin, cyanidins, and delphinidins. Some have been used as hematoxylin substitutes. [G. anthos, flower, + kyanos, a blue substance]
A genus of muscoid flies similar in appearance to the common housefly. [G. anthos, flower, + myia, fly] A. canicularis a small black horsefly, the larvae of which have been reported as accidental parasites in the intestine of humans, being hatched there from the ingested eggs; symptoms of gastroenteric irritation may be caused by it; adults may transport eggs of the tropical warble fly or botfly to humans, Dermatobia hominis, a cause of myiasis.
The presence of Bacillus anthracis in the circulating blood, usually resulting from previously developed anthrax of the skin or lungs. SYN: anthrax septicemia.
1. A hydrocarbon obtained from coal tar; it oxidizes to anthraquinone, which is converted to alizarin dyes. SYN: anthracin. 2. A compound containing a. (1) as a part of its structure. [G. anthrax, coal]
Relating to anthrax.
SYN: anthracene (1) .
Coal; carbon; carbuncle; corresponds to L. carb-, carbo-. [G. anthrax, anthrakos, charcoal, a live coal; a carbuncle, a pustule]
Pneumonoconiosis from accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust; the silica content produces fibrous nodules. SYN: coal worker's pneumoconiosis. [anthraco- + silicosis]
Pneumonoconiosis from accumulation of carbon from inhaled smoke or coal dust in the lungs. SEE ALSO: pneumomelanosis. SYN: collier lung, miner's lung (1) . [anthraco- + G. -osis, condition]
Characterized by anthracosis.
anthracycline (an-thra-sik′lin, -len)
Anticancer agent consisting of 3 moieties: a pigmented aglycone, an amino sugar, and a lateral chain. Examples are doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and daunomycin.
Used as a substitute for chrysarobin in ointment for treatment of psoriasis and ringworm infestation. SYN: dithranol.
A neutralizing material from the capsule of Bacillus anthracis that neutralizes serum and tissue antimicrobial action.
anthranilic acid (an-thra-nil′ik)
One of the products of tryptophan catabolism. SYN: o-aminobenzoic acid.
The acyl radical of anthranilic acid.
C14H8O5; 1,2,7-Trihydroxyanthraquinone;a purple dye used in histology as a reagent for calcium, although the specificity has been questioned.
1. The basis of natural cathartic principles in plants; used as a reagent. 2. A compound containing a. (1) as a part of its structure; this class of compound comprises the largest group of naturally occurring quinones.
1. A disease in humans caused by infection by cutaneous a. (q.v.) followed by septicemia with the bacterium Bacillus anthracis from infected animals through skin; marked by hemorrhage and serous effusions in various organs and body cavities and by symptoms of extreme prostration. Rarely, infection is airborne, causing rapidly fatal pneumonia. This is the most severe form. 2. An infectious disease of animals, especially herbivores, due to presence in the blood of Bacillus anthracis. SYN: charbon. [G. a. (anthrak-), charcoal, coal, a carbuncle] cerebral a. a form of a., associated with pulmonary or intestinal a., in which the specific bacilli invade the capillaries of the brain causing violent delirium; frequently associated with hemorrhagic meningitis. cutaneous a. the skin of B. anthracis infection characteristic lesion that begins as a papule and soon becomes a vesicle and breaks, discharging a bloody serum; the seat of this vesicle, in about 36 hours, becomes a bluish black necrotic mass; constitutional symptoms of septicemia are severe: high fever, vomiting, profuse sweating, and extreme prostration; the infection is often fatal. SYN: malignant pustule. intestinal a. a usually fatal form of a. marked by chill, high fever, pain in the head, back, and extremities, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, cardiovascular collapse, and frequently hemorrhages from the mucous membranes and in the skin (petechiae). SEE ALSO: mycosis intestinalis. pulmonary a. a form of a. acquired by inhalation of dust containing Bacillus anthracis; there is an initial chill followed by pain in the back and legs, rapid respiration, dyspnea, cough, fever, rapid pulse, and extreme cardiovascular collapse. SYN: ragpicker's disease, ragsorter's disease, woolsorter's disease, woolsorter's pneumonia.
9,10-Dihydro-9-oxoanthracene;a reagent used in the detection of carbohydrates.
Human. [G. anthropos, a human being (of either sex)]
The study of the biologic relationships of humans as a species.
With a human bias; under the assumption that humans are the central fact of the universe. [anthropo- + G. kentron, center]
anthropogenic, anthropogenetic (an′thro-po-jen′ik, -je-net′ik)
Relating to anthropogeny.
The origin and development of man, both individual and racial. SYN: anthropogenesis, anthropogony. [anthropo- + G. genesis, origin]
The geographical distribution of the varieties of human beings. [anthropo- + G. grapho, to write]
1. Resembling humans in structure and form. 2. One of the monkeys resembling humans; an ape. [G. anthropo-eides, man-like]
A suborder of the mammalian order Primates, that comprises the families Cebidae (New World monkeys), Callithricidae (marmosets), Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys), Pongidae (gibbons, gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans), and Hominidae (humans).
The branch of science concerned with origin and development of humans in all their physical, social, and cultural relationships. [anthropo- + G. logos, treatise] applied a. a fusion of modern cultural a. and some aspects of sociology in the study of literate peoples in their cultures and deriving applications therefrom. criminal a. a. in relation to the physical and mental characteristics, heredity, and social relations of the criminal. SEE ALSO: criminology. cultural a. study of all aspects of culture resulting from human behavior, including, among others, speech and language, systems of thought, social systems, and the artifacts produced by a culture. physical a. the study of the physical attributes of human beings.
An instrument for measuring various dimensions of the human body.
Relating to anthropometry.
The branch of anthropology concerned with comparative measurements of the human body. [anthropo- + G. metron, measure]
Ascription of human shape or qualities to nonhuman creatures or inanimate objects. Cf.:theriomorphism. [anthropo- + G. morphe, form]
The study of the laws governing the development of the human species and the relation to the environment. [anthropo- + G. nomos, law]
Attribution of human feelings to nonhumans, e.g., to gods or lower animals. [anthropo- + G. pathos, suffering]
Human-seeking or human-preferring, especially with reference to: 1) bloodsucking arthropods, denoting the preference of a parasite for the human host as a source of blood or tissues over an animal host; and 2) dermatophytic fungi which grow preferentially on humans rather than other animals. [anthropo- + G. phileo, to love]
Morbid aversion to or dread of human companionship. [anthropo- + G. phobos, fear]
Judging body type and build by inspection. [anthropo- + G. skopeo, to view]
That part of anthropology concerned with the human body, e.g., anatomy, physiology, or pathology. [anthropo- + G. soma, body, + logos, study]
A zoonosis maintained in nature by animals and transmissible to humans; e.g., rabies, brucellosis. Cf.:zooanthroponosis, amphixenosis. [anthropo- + G. zoon, animal, + nosos, disease]
1. Against, opposing or, in relation to symptoms and diseases, curative. 2. Prefix denoting an antibody (immunoglobulin) specific for the thing indicated; e.g., antitoxin (antibody specific for a toxin). [G. anti, against, opposite, instead of]
Antagonistic to the action of sympathetic or other adrenergic nerve fibers. SEE ALSO: sympatholytic.
A specific antibody that inhibits or destroys the action of an agglutinin.
Relating to any agent or measure that prevents, inhibits, or alleviates an allergic reaction.
SYN: desensitization (1) .
Any substance capable of preventing full expression of the biologic effects of androgenic hormones on responsive tissues, either by producing antagonistic effects on the target tissue, as estrogens do, or by merely inhibiting androgenic effects, such as by competing for binding sites at the cell surface.
Pertaining to factors or substances that prevent or correct anemic conditions.
Antibody specific for another antibody.
An antiantibody that inhibits or counteracts the effects of an antitoxin.
An antivenin counteracting the poison (lysin) of a spider. [anti- + G. arachne, spider, + lysin]
Combating an arrhythmia. SYN: antidysrhythmic.
1. Relieving arthritis. 2. A remedy for arthritis. SYN: antarthritic.
1. Tending to relieve or prevent asthma. 2. An agent that prevents or aborts an asthmatic attack. SYN: antasthmatic.
An antibody that inhibits or neutralizes the activity of an autolysin.
Destructive to or preventing the growth of bacteria.
SYN: antitussive. [anti- + G. bex (bech-), cough]
A microorganism producing antimicrobial substance.
1. An association of two organisms that is detrimental to one of them, in contrast to probiosis. 2. Production of an antibiotic by bacteria or other organisms inhibitory to other living things, especially among soil microbes. [anti- + G. biosis, life]
1. Relating to antibiosis. 2. Prejudicial to life. 3. A soluble substance derived from a mold or bacterium that inhibits the growth of other microorganisms. 4. Relating to such an action. broad-spectrum a. an a. having a wide range of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. peptide a. a. composed of peptides; the antibacterial action is based on the physical disruption of cell membranes. transport a. a substance that makes biomembranes permeable to certain ions.
Indicating microorganisms that continue to multiply although exposed to antibiotic agents.
Rarely used term for: 1. Preventive or curative of a mucous discharge (blennorrhagia). 2. A remedy possessing such properties.
antibody (Ab) (an′te-bod-e)
An immunoglobulin molecule produced by B lymphoid cells with a specific amino acid sequence evoked in humans or other animals by an antigen (immunogen). These molecules are characterized by reacting specifically with the antigen in some demonstrable way, a. and antigen each being defined in terms of the other. Antibodies may also exist naturally, without being present as a result of the stimulus provided by the introduction of an antigen; antibodies are found in the blood and body fluids, although the basic structure of the molecule consists of two light and two heavy chains, antibodies may also be found as dimers, trimers, or pentamers. SEE ALSO: immunoglobulin. SYN: immune protein, protective protein, sensitizer (2) .
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