|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
antimony (Sb) (an′-ti-mo-ne)
A metallic element, atomic no. 51, atomic wt. 121.757, valences 0, −3, +3, +5; used in alloys; toxic and irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. SYN: stibium. [G. anti + monos, not found alone] a. chloride SYN: a. trichloride. a. dimercaptosuccinate an antiparasitic effective against Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. SYN: stibocaptate. a. oxide SYN: a. trioxide. a. potassium tartrate a compound used as an expectorant and in the treatment of schistosomiasis japonicum, although it is extremely toxic and must be administered very slowly intravenously; common toxic manifestations are phlebitis, tachycardia, and hypotension; sudden deaths have been reported, chiefly from circulatory collapse. SYN: potassium antimonyltartrate, tartar emetic, tartrated a.. a. sodium gluconate SYN: stibogluconate sodium (1) . a. sodium tartrate used in the treatment of schistosomiasis, and as an emetic. SYN: sodium antimonyl tartrate. a. sodium thioglycollate a compound of a. trioxide and thioglycolic acid, used for tropical parasites. tartrated a. SYN: a. potassium tartrate. a. thioglycollamide the triamide of a. thioglycolic acid; used in the treatment of trypanosomiasis, kala azar, and filariasis. a. trichloride combines with vitamin A to form a blue compound and with β-carotene to form a green one, as a method for assay of these substances; also used externally as a caustic. SYN: a. chloride. a. trioxide used technically in paints and flame-proofing; also formerly used as an expectorant and emetic. SYN: antimonous oxide, a. oxide, flowers of a..
The univalent radical, SbO&cbond;, of antimony.
Inhibiting or preventing the actions of muscarine and muscarinelike agents, or the effects of parasympathetic stimulation at the neuroeffector junction ( e.g., atropine).
A factor that reduces or interferes with the mutagenic actions or effects of a substance.
Pertaining to or characteristic of an antimutagen.
Tending toward the correction of the symptoms of myasthenia gravis, e.g., as in the action of neostigmine.
Antagonistic to fungi. SYN: antifungal. [anti- + G. mykes, fungus]
Having an action to prevent nausea.
Preventing the development, maturation, or spread of neoplastic cells.
Mixtures of various chemicals such as amino acids and peptides, with theoretical support as natural defense aids against cancer and various other diseases.
An antibody to a neurotoxin.
Toward the antinion.
Relating to the antinion.
The space between the eyebrows; the point on the skull opposite the inion. SEE ALSO: glabella. [anti- + G. inion, nape of the neck]
A contradiction between two principles, each of which is considered true. [anti- + G. nomos, law]
Having an affinity for or reacting with the cell nucleus.
1. Relieving toothache. 2. A toothache remedy. [anti- + G. odous, tooth, + algos, pain]
SYN: tumor suppressor gene.
An agent that inhibits oxidation; any of numerous chemical substances, including certain natural body products and nutrients, that can neutralize the oxidant effect of free radicals and other substances.Free radicals, formed in the course of normal cellular respiration and metabolism, and more abundantly under the influence of certain environmental chemicals and sunlight, have been implicated in the causation of various types of tissue damage, particularly those involved in atherosclerosis, the aging process, and the development of cancer. A free radical is any atom or molecule that has 1 or more unpaired electrons and is therefore highly reactive, seeking to acquire electrons from other substances. Free radicals are normally scavenged from tissues by the a. enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Ubidecarenone (coenzyme Q10) is also thought to act as an a. in mitochondrial respiration reactions. In addition, a number of nutrient substances, vitamins, and minerals have been shown to contribute to a. functions, generally by serving as co-factors or co-enzymes. These include selenium, β-carotene, and vitamins C and E. It has been postulated that an imbalance between the production of free radicals and natural a. processes may be a major causative factor in aging and in many chronic and degenerative disorders, and some have speculated that a. nutrients may have a role in disease prevention. Oxidation of LDL cholesterol does indeed seem to be responsible for foam cell formation in the genesis of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, free radicals have been shown to damage DNA in ways that can culminate in malignant change. But oxidation also occurs in many beneficial processes, including chemotaxis of cells with immunological functions, phagocytosis, clotting mechanisms, and apoptosis. Moreover, antioxidants do not exert their effects in only one way, but can act during initiation or propagation of reactions at a variety of intracellular and extracellular sites, and in some circumstances can be pro-oxidant. Claims that vitamins and other nutrients, when taken in massive doses, can prevent heart attack or cancer or retard aging are not based on scientific evidence. Although a high intake of a. nutrients from food sources appears to offer some health advantages, there is at present no unequivocal evidence that any a. nutrient, when taken in excess of normal dietary amounts, has value in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or any other abnormal process except such as may be associated with frank nutritional or vitamin deficiency. In fact, although naturally occurring a. nutrients are vital dietary components, they can cause adverse effects when large amounts are taken for prolonged periods. A controlled trial of β-carotene and retinol not only failed to show any benefit but was aborted when statistics showed large increases in the risk of death from lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.
A peptide that inhibits the proteolytic enzymes, papain, trypsin, and plasmin. [anti- + papain]
Denoting molecules that are parallel but have opposite directional polarity; e.g., the two strands of a DNA double helix.
Destructive to parasites.
Destructive to lice.
Effective in the treatment of pediculosis, especially denoting such an agent.
Preventing the regular recurrence of a disease ( e.g., malaria) or a symptom.
SYN: reversed peristalsis.
1. Relating to antiperistalsis. 2. Impeding or arresting peristalsis.
1. Having an inhibitory action upon the secretion of sweat. 2. An agent having such an action ( e.g., aluminum chloride). SYN: anhidrotic (2) .
Impeding or preventing the action of the phagocytes.
1. Older term denoting preventing or relieving inflammation. 2. An agent that reduces inflammation. SYN: antipyrotic (1) . [anti- + G. phogistos, burnt up]
A mechanism or drug designed to control phobias.
A substance that inhibits or prevents the effects of plasmin; found in plasma and some tissues, especially the spleen and liver. SYN: antifibrinolysin.
A substance that manifests a lytic or agglutinative action on the blood platelets, thereby inhibiting or destroying the effects of the latter.
Destructive to, or repressing the growth of, the pneumococcus ( e.g., penicillin).
Denoting opposite positions; positioned at opposite sides of a cell or other body.
That which is diametrically opposite. [G. antipous, with the feet opposite] optic a. SYN: enantiomer.
The coupled transport of two different molecules or ions through a membrane in opposite directions by a common carrier mechanism (antiporter). Cf.:symport, uniport. [anti- + L. porto, to carry]
A protein responsible for mediating the transport of two different molecules or ions simultaneously in opposite directions through a membrane.
A specific antibody that inhibits or prevents the effects of a precipitin.
A substance that inhibits progesterone formation, that interferes with its carriage or stability in the blood, or that reduces its uptake by, or effects on, target organs ( e.g., RU-486).
An anticoagulant that inhibits or prevents the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin; examples are heparin, which is present in various tissues (especially in liver), and dicoumarin, which is isolated from partially decomposed sweet clover.
1. Preventing or relieving itching. 2. An agent that relieves itching.
1. SYN: a. agent. 2. Denoting the actions of such an agent ( e.g., chlorpromazine).
An analog of the purines and purine nucleotides that acts as an antimetabolite.
Preventing suppuration. [anti- + G. pyon, pus, + -gen, production]
Symptomatic treatment of fever rather than of the underlying disease.
1. Reducing fever. SYN: antifebrile, febrifugal. 2. An agent that reduces fever ( e.g., acetaminophen, aspirin). SYN: febrifuge. [anti- + G. pyretos, fever]
An analog of the pyrimidines and pyrimidine nucleotides that acts as an antimetabolite.
antipyrine (an-te-pi′rin, -pi′ren)
An obsolescent analgesic and antipyretic. a. acetylsalicylate a compound of a. and aspirin; an antirheumatic and analgesic. a. salicylacetate an analgesic, antirheumatic, and antipyretic. a. salicylate an analgesic and antipyretic; formerly used in dysmenorrhea, influenza, and acute rhinitis in the early stages.
1. SYN: antiphlogistic. 2. Relieving the pain and promoting the healing of superficial burns. 3. A topical application for burns. [anti- + G. pyrotikos, burning, inflaming]
Promoting the cure of rickets or preventing its development ( e.g., vitamin D preparations).
1. Denoting an agent that suppresses manifestations of rheumatic disease; usually applied to antiinflammatory agents or agents that are capable of delaying progression of the basic disease process in inflammatory arthritis. 2. An agent possessing such properties ( e.g., gold compounds).
An antibody or antitoxin that inhibits or prevents the effects of ricin.
Denoting a method to 1) control regurgitation of food or 2) break a compulsive trend of thought. [anti- + L. rumino, to chew the cud, fr. rumen, throat]
See MNS blood group, Blood Groups appendix.
1. Preventive or curative of scurvy (scorbutus). 2. A treatment for scurvy ( e.g., vitamin C).
1. Preventing or relieving excessive secretion of sebum; preventing or relieving seborrheic dermatitis. 2. An agent having such actions.
Inhibitory to secretion, said of certain drugs that reduce or suppress gastric secretion ( e.g., ranitidine, omeprazole).
See a. DNA, a. RNA.
Prevention of infection by inhibiting the growth of infectious agents. SEE ALSO: disinfection. [anti- + G. sepsis, putrefaction]
1. Relating to antisepsis. 2. An agent or substance capable of effecting antisepsis.
Serum that contains demonstrable antibody or antibodies specific for one (monovalent or specific a.) or more (polyvalent a.) antigens; may be prepared from the blood of animals inoculated with an antigenic material or from the blood of animals and persons that have been stimulated by natural contact with an antigen (as in those who recover from an attack of disease). SYN: immune serum. blood group a.s see Blood Groups appendix. heterologous a. an a. that reacts with ( e.g., agglutinates) certain microorganisms or other complexes of antigens, even though the a. was produced by means of stimulation with a different microorganism or antigenic material. SEE ALSO: homologous a.. homologous a. an a. in which there is complete correspondence between the content of antibodies and the antigenic material used for producing the a.. monovalent a. a.. nerve growth factor a. an a. containing antibodies against nerve growth factor; when injected into newborn animals the majority of sympathetic ganglion cells are permanently destroyed, resulting in hypoinnervation of peripheral tissues. SYN: NGF a.. NGF a. SYN: nerve growth factor a.. polyvalent a. a.. specific a. a..
See military antishock trousers, pneumatic antishock garment.
An agent that diminishes or arrests the flow of saliva ( e.g., atropine). [anti- + G. sialon, saliva, + agogos, drawing forth]
Counteracting the physiological action of iron, probably by chelating or precipitation. [anti- + G. sideros, iron]
Opposed to the rights of individuals or to the legal norms of society; e.g., the a. personality, the psychopath. Cf.:asocial.
1. Preventing or alleviating muscle spasms (cramps). 2. An agent that quiets spasm.
Antagonistic to staphylococci or their toxins.
A substance that antagonizes or neutralizes the action of staphylolysin.
An antibody counteracting the action of triacylglycerol lipase (steapsin).
Destructive to streptococci or antagonistic to their toxins.
An antibody that inhibits or prevents the dissolution of fibrin by streptokinase.
An antibody that inhibits or prevents the effects of streptolysin O elaborated by group A streptococci; the amount of a. in the serum is frequently increased during and after streptococcal disease, and comparative titers may be a diagnostic and prognostic aid.
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