|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
apolipoprotein (apo) (ap′o-lip-o-pro′ten)
The protein component of any lipoprotein complexes that is a normal constituent of plasma chylomicrons, HDL, LDL, and VLDL in humans. a. A-I an a. found in HDL and chylomicrons. It is an activator of LCAT and a ligand for the HDL receptor. A deficiency of this a. has been associated with low HDL levels and with Tangier disease. a. A-II an a. found in HDL and chylomicrons. It stabilizes HDL. a. A-IV an a. secreted with chylomicrons and also found in HDL. It participates in the catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL. It is also required for activation of lipoprotein lipase. a. B apolipoproteins found in chylomicrons, LDL, VLDL, and IDL. Elevated in the plasma of individuals with familial hyperlipoproteinemia. a. B-100 an a. found in LDL, VLDL, and IDL. The ligand for the LDL receptor; absent in certain types of abetalipoproteinemia. a. B-48 an a. found in chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants. Retained in intestine of individuals with chylomicron retention disease. a. C-I an a. found in VLDL and chylomicrons. It modulates the interaction of a. E with VLDL. a. C-II an a. found in VLDL, HDL, and chylomicrons; an activator of lipoprotein lipase; a deficiency will result in accumulation of chylomicrons and triacylglycerols. a. C-III an a. found in VLDL, HDL, and chylomicrons. It inhibits a number of lipases. a. D an a. found in HDL. It forms a complex with LCAT and appears to be involved in the transport of bilin. a. E an a. found in VLDL, HDL, chylomicrons, and chylomicron remnants. Elevated in individuals with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. It has an important role in cholesterol transport.
SYN: parthenogenesis. [G. apo, from, + mixis, a mingling]
apomorphine hydrochloride (ap-o-mor′fen)
A derivative of morphine used as an emetic by the parenteral route of administration.
Excision of an aponeurosis. [aponeurosis + G. ektome, excision]
SYN: fasciorrhaphy. [aponeurosis + G. rhaphe, suture]
aponeurosis, pl .aponeuroses (ap′o-noo-ro′sis, -sez) [TA]
A fibrous sheet or flat, expanded tendon, giving attachment to muscular fibers and serving as the means of origin or insertion of a flat muscle; it sometimes also performs the office of a fascia for other muscles. [G. the end of the muscle where it becomes tendon, fr. apo, from, + neuron, sinew] bicipital a., a. bicipitalis [TA] radiating fibers from the tendon of insertion of the biceps that form a triangular band passing obliquely across the hollow of the elbow to the ulnar side and becoming merged into the deep fascia of the forearm, thus providing the muscle with an indirect attachment to the subcutaneous border of the ulna. Formerly called “grace Dieu” fascia, it serves to protect the brachial artery and median nerve during phlebotomy of median cubital vein. SYN: a. musculi bicipitis brachii [TA] , lacertus fibrosus&star, bicipital fascia, semilunar fascia. Denonvilliers a. SYN: rectovesical septum. epicranial a. [TA] the a. or intermediate tendon connecting the frontal belly and occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle to form—with the temporoparietalis— the epicranius. SYN: galea aponeurotica [TA] , a. epicranialis&star, galea (2) . a. epicranialis epicranial a.. extensor a. SYN: extensor digital expansion. a. of external oblique muscle broad, flat tendinous portion of the external abdominal oblique muscle. The fleshy fibers of the muscle end in the a. along a line descending vertically from the costochondral joint of the ninth rib then turning laterally just below the level of the umbilicus toward the anterior superior iliac spine. The fibers of the a. run medially and inferiorly, contributing to the anterior wall of the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle and decussating with those of the contralateral a. at the median linea alba. Inferomedially, the a. is attached to the upper border of the pubic symphysis, the pubic crest and pubic tubercle. Between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle, it is thickened and turned under, forming the inguinal ligaments. The portion of the a. attached to the pubic bone forms the superficial inguinal ring by splitting into medial and lateral crura. SEE ALSO: external spermatic fascia, inguinal ligament, lacunar ligament, pectineal ligament, reflected inguinal ligament, superficial inguinal ring, rectus sheath. a. of insertion a tendinous sheet serving for the insertion of a broad muscle. a. of internal oblique muscle broad, flat tendinous portion of the internal abdominal oblique muscle. The fleshy fibers of the muscle end in the a. lateral to the semilunar line. The uppermost portion of the a. is attached to the outer surfaces and lower borders of the seventh to ninth costal cartilages. Of the portion extending between the costoxiphoid margin and the pubis, the upper two-thirds splits into anterior and posterior laminae at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle to contribute to both the anterior and posterior walls of the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle as they extend to the midline linea alba. The lower third of the a. does not split but joins the aponeuroses of the external abdominal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles to form the anterior wall of the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. The fibers of the portion of the a. contributing to the rectus sheath decussate with those of the contralateral a. in the linea alba. The lowermost portion of the a. blends with the a. of the transversus abdominis muscle to form the conjoint tendon, attaching to the pubic crest and often the pecten pubis, thus forming the posterior wall of the inguinal canal at the superficial inguinal ring. SEE ALSO: cremasteric fascia, inguinal falx, rectus sheath. a. of investment a fibrous membrane covering and keeping in place a muscle or group of muscles. a. linguae [TA] SYN: lingual a.. lingual a. [TA] the thickened lamina propria of the tongue to which the lingual muscles attach. SYN: a. linguae [TA] . a. musculi bicipitis brachii [TA] SYN: bicipital a.. a. of origin a tendinous expansion serving as the attachment of origin of a broad muscle. a. palatina [TA] SYN: palatine a.. palatine a. [TA] the expanded tendons of the tensor veli palatini muscles in the anterior two-thirds of the soft palate to which the other palatine muscles attach. SYN: a. palatina [TA] . palmar a. [TA] the thickened, central portion of the fascia ensheathing the hand; it radiates toward the bases of the fingers from the tendon of the palmaris longus muscle. SEE ALSO: palmar fascia. SYN: a. palmaris [TA] , Dupuytren fascia. a. palmaris [TA] SYN: palmar a.. Petit a. the posterior layer of the broad ligament of the uterus. [P. Petit] a. pharyngea SYN: pharyngobasilar fascia. plantar a. [TA] the very thick, central portion of the fascia investing the plantar muscles; it radiates toward the toes from the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity and gives attachment to the short flexor muscle of the toes. SEE ALSO: plantar fascia. SYN: a. plantaris [TA] . a. plantaris [TA] SYN: plantar a.. Sibson a. SYN: suprapleural membrane. temporal a. SYN: temporal fascia. thoracolumbar a. SYN: thoracolumbar fascia. a. of vastus muscles patellar retinaculum, medial patellar retinaculum, lateral patellar retinaculum.
Inflammation of an aponeurosis.
Relating to an aponeurosis.
Obsolete. Instrument for dividing an aponeurosis. [aponeurosis + G. tome, a cutting]
Incision of an aponeurosis.
Obsolete term for a diminution of the phylactic power of the body fluids, as sometimes observed in the negative phase of therapy with immunizing agents.
apophysial, apophyseal (a-po-fiz′e-al)
Relating to or resembling an apophysis. SYN: apophysary.
apophysis, pl .apophyses (a-pof′i-sis, -sez) [TA]
An outgrowth or projection, especially one from a bone. A bony process or outgrowth that lacks an independent center of ossification. [G. an offshoot] basilar a. SYN: basilar part of occipital bone. a. conchae SYN: eminence of concha. a. helicis SYN: spine of helix. lenticular a. SYN: lenticular process of incus. temporal a. SYN: mastoid process.
Inflammation of any apophysis. calcaneal a. SYN: Sever disease. a. tibialis adolescentium SYN: Osgood-Schlatter disease.
A genus of fungi in the family Mucoraceae; a cause of mucormycosis.
Obsolete term for a decrease in the amount of blood plasma.
Relating to, suffering from, or predisposed to apoplexy.
SYN: stroke (1) . [G. apoplexia] abdominal a. mesenteric hemorrhage, thrombosis, or embolus involving the mesenteric or abdominal blood vessels. adrenal a. hemorrhage into the adrenal glands or thrombosis of the adrenal veins, followed by acute adrenal insufficiency, occurring in the Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome. bulbar a. a. due to vascular lesion in the brainstem. functional a. a condition simulating a. without any cerebral lesion; a form of conversion hysteria. heat a. 1. SYN: heatstroke. 2. SYN: ardent fever. labyrinthine a. a clinical syndrome manifested as a single, abrupt attack of severe vertigo, nausea, and vomiting, with permanent loss of labyrinthine function on one side, but without associated hearing loss or tinnitus. Attributed to occlusion of the labyrinthine branch of the internal auditory artery. neonatal a. intracranial hemorrhage in newborn children. pituitary a. the sudden onset of visual loss, ophthalmoplegia, and meningeal pain due to infarction of a pituitary adenoma, producing compression of chiasm and cavernous sinus and some subarachnoid hemorrhage. spinal a. stroke involving the spinal cord. uteroplacental a. SYN: Couvelaire uterus.
A polypeptide chain (protein) not yet complexed with the prosthetic group that is necessary to form the active holoprotein.
apoptosis (ap′op-to′sis, ap′o-to′sis)
Programmed cell death; deletion of individual cells by fragmentation into membrane-bound particles, which are phagocytized by other cells. SYN: programmed cell death. [G. a falling or dropping off, fr. apo, off, + ptosis, a falling] Whereas some cells (e.g., cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers, CNS neurons) last a lifetime, others (e.g., epithelial and glandular cells, erythrocytes) have limited life-spans, at the end of which they are genetically programmed to self-destruct, usually to be replaced by others formed by mitosis from surviving cells. Cells in tissue cultures spontaneously undergo a. after about 50 cell divisions. In contrast to cell death caused by injury, infection, or circulatory impairment, a. elicits no inflammatory response in adjacent cells and tissues. Features of a. detectable by histologic and histochemical methods include cell shrinkage, due chiefly to dehydration; increased membrane permeability, with a rise in intracellular calcium and a fall in pH; endonucleolysis (fragmentation of nuclear DNA); and ultimately formation of apoptotic bodies, which are absorbed and removed by macrophages. Besides being due to genetic programming, a. can be induced by injury to cellular DNA, as by irradiation and some cytotoxic agents used to treat cancer. It can be suppressed by naturally occurring factors (e.g., cytokines) and by some drugs (e.g., protease inhibitors). A. typically does not occur in malignant cells. Such cells therefore escape the destiny of their nonmalignant precursor cells and are said to be immortal. Immortalization can occur in various ways. The bcl-2 gene, present in many cancers, directs the production of an enzyme that blocks a. and immortalizes affected cells. Injury to DNA normally triggers a. by activating the p53 tumor suppressor gene, which is missing or mutated in about one-half of all human cancers. Cells that lack this gene can survive chemotherapy and irradiation intended to destroy cancer cells. Failure of a. to occur is also involved in some degenerative diseases, including lupus erythematosus, and may be responsible for cellular damage caused by certain viruses, including HIV.
A regulatory protein which, when combined with another corepressor, undergoes allosteric transformation, allowing it to combine with an operator locus and inhibit transcription of certain genes.
A cytoplasmic inclusion produced by the cell itself. [G. apo, from, + soma, body]
Slight hemorrhage, or bleeding by drops. [G. a trickling down]
Congenital absence of the prepuce. [G. a- priv. + posthe, foreskin]
A unit of brightness equal to 0.1 millilambert. [G. apo, from + stilbe, lamp]
Postponement of death; prolongation of life, as opposed to euthanasia. [G. apo, away, + thanatos, death]
Obsolescent term for pharmacist or druggist. [G. apotheke, a barn, storehouse, fr. apo, from, + theke, a box]
apothem, apotheme (ap′o-them, ap′o-them)
A precipitate caused by long boiling of a vegetable infusion or by its exposure to air. [G. apo, from, + thema, something set down, fr. tithemi, to place]
SYN: subgingival curettage. [G. apo, away, + xeein, to scrape]
apozem, apozema (ap′o-zem, ap-oz′e-ma)
SYN: decoction. [apo- + G. zema, something boiled]
1. A collection of instruments adapted for a special purpose. 2. An instrument made up of several parts. 3. [TA] A group or system of glands, ducts, blood vessels, muscles, or other anatomic structures involved in the performance of some function. SEE ALSO: system. [L. equipment. fr. ap-paro, pp. -atus, to prepare] accessory visual a. SYN: accessory visual structures, under structure. achromatic a. the nonstaining asters and spindle fibers in a dividing cell. alimentary a. SYN: alimentary system. attachment a. the tissues that attach the tooth to the alveolar process: cementum, periodontal membrane, and alveolar bone. Barcroft-Warburg a. SYN: Warburg a.. Beckmann a. a. for the accurate measurement of melting points and boiling points in connection with molecular weight determinations. Benedict-Roth a. a device employed to measure the amount of oxygen utilized in quiet breathing in the basal state for the estimation of the basal metabolic rate; the subject rebreathes oxygen through soda lime from a recording spirometer. branchial a. the aggregate of the pharyngeal arches, pouches, clefts, and membranes seen in the developing embryo of vertebrates. central a. the centrosome and centrosphere. chromatic a. the deeply staining mass of chromosomes in a dividing cell. chromidial a. the aggregate of extranuclear network, irregular strands, and masses of basophilic staining material permeating the protoplasm of the cell. SEE ALSO: ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum. dental a. SYN: masticatory system. digestive a. SYN: alimentary system. a. digestorius SYN: alimentary system. genitourinary a. SYN: urogenital system. Golgi a. a membranous system of cisternae and vesicles located between the nucleus and the secretory pole or surface of a cell; concerned with the investment and intracellular transport of membrane-bounded secretory proteins, and the synthesis of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. SYN: dictyosome, Golgi body, Golgi complex, Golgi internal reticulum, Holmgrén-Golgi canals. Haldane a. a device used for the analysis of respiratory gases. hyoid a. veterinary anatomy term for hyoid bones, a modified portion of the ancestral branchial skeleton consisting of an articulated chain of bones extending from the mastoid region of the skull on each side to the base of the tongue; in humans, it is reduced to a single bone, os hyoideum; in a typical mammal (the dog), it consists of a tympanohyoid cartilage attached to the skull, followed by the stylohyoid, epihyoid, keratohyoid, basihyoid, and thyrohyoid bones. SYN: a. hyoideus. a. hyoideus SYN: hyoid a.. juxtaglomerular a. SYN: juxtaglomerular complex. Kirschner a. SYN: Kirschner wire. Kjeldahl a. an a. for distilling ammonia arising from acid decomposition of an organic compound; used in nitrogen analysis. lacrimal a. [TA] consisting of the lacrimal gland, the lacrimal lake, the lacrimal canaliculi, the lacrimal sac, and the nasolacrimal duct. SYN: a. lacrimalis [TA] . a. lacrimalis [TA] SYN: lacrimal a.. a. ligamentosus colli SYN: ligamentum nuchae. a. ligamentosus weitbrechti SYN: tectorial membrane (of median atlantoaxial joint). masticatory a. 1. SYN: masticatory system. 2. SYN: stomatognathic system. mental a. mental structure consisting of thoughts, feelings, cognitions, and memories; in psychoanalysis, the topographic structure of the mind. pyriform a. a pear-shaped structure within the eggshell of certain tapeworms (family Anoplocephalidae), of uncertain function. a. respiratorius SYN: respiratory system. respiratory a. SYN: respiratory system. Roughton-Scholander a. a syringe-like device for analyzing the respiratory gases in a small sample of blood. SYN: Roughton-Scholander syringe. Scholander a. a device used for determining the oxygen and carbon dioxide percentage in 0.5 ml of a respiratory gas. subneural a. modified sarcoplasm in a motor end-plate. a. suspensorius lentis SYN: ciliary zonule. Taylor a. SYN: Taylor back brace. Tiselius a. an a. for separating proteins in solution by electrophoresis and thus for determining the isoelectric point, molecular weight, and related physical properties; the direction and rate of migration of the protein and the characteristics of the boundary phase between the protein solution and the supernatant salt solution are recorded by photography of the changes in refractive index at the boundary. urinary a. SYN: urinary system. urogenital a. SYN: urogenital system. a. urogenitalis SYN: urogenital system. Van Slyke a. an a. for determining the amounts of respiratory gases in the blood. vestibular a. the receptor organ of the vestibular portion of the 8th cranial nerve, consisting of the three semicircular canals and the otolith, located within the petrous portion of the temporal bone of the skull. Warburg a. an a. for measuring the oxygen consumption of incubated tissue slices by manometric measurement of changes in gas pressure produced by oxygen absorption in an enclosed flask. SYN: Barcroft-Warburg a..
1. Manifest; obvious; evident; e.g., a clinically a. infection. 2. Frequently used (confusingly) to mean “seeming to be,” ostensible, pseudo-. [L. apparens, visible, fr. appareo, to come in sight]
Any part, subordinate in function or size, attached to a main structure. SEE ALSO: accessory structures, under structure. SYN: appendix (1) . [L. appendix] atrial a. SYN: auricles (of atria), under auricle. auricular a. 1. SYN: right auricle. 2. a small congenital skin tag usually located anterior to the tragus of the ear, often called a skin tag; more often unilateral than bilateral. drumstick a. an a. of the nucleus that represents the inactive heterochromatic X chromosome seen in 3% of the neutrophil leukocytes of human females. See sex chromatin, lyonization. epiploic a. SYN: omental appendices, under appendix. appendages of eye SYN: accessory visual structures, under structure. appendages of the fetus amnion, yolk sac, and the fetal (chorionic) part of the placenta together with the umbilical cord. left auricular a. SYN: left auricle. right auricular a. SYN: right auricle. appendages of skin the hairs, nails, and sweat, sebaceous, and mammary glands. testicular a. SYN: appendix of testis. uterine appendages the ovaries, uterine (fallopian) tubes, and associated ligaments. SYN: adnexa uteri. vermiform a. SYN: appendix (2) . vesicular appendages of epoophoron [TA] a small fluid-filled cyst attached by a slender stalk to the fimbriated end of the uterine tube; a vestigial remnant of the embryonic mesonephric duct. SYN: appendix vesiculosa [TA] , Morgagni hydatid, morgagnian cyst, stalked hydatid, vesicular appendices of uterine tube.
Obsolete term for pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen in the region of the vermiform appendix. [appendix + G. algos, pain]
Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. SYN: appendicectomy. [appendix + G. ektome, excision] auricular a. excision of the auricular appendix of an atrium, usually the left.
Relating to an appendix. SYN: appendical.
Ectasia of the appendix.
Rarely used term for any chronic disease of the vermiform appendix, or a symptomatic uneasiness in that area.
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix. [appendix + G. -itis, inflammation] actinomycotic a. chronic suppurative a. due to infection by Actinomyces israelii. acute a. acute inflammation of the appendix, usually due to bacterial infection, which may be precipitated by obstruction of the lumen by a fecalith; variable symptoms often consisting of periumbilical colicky pain and vomiting may be followed by fever, leukocytosis, persistent pain, and signs of peritoneal inflammation in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen; perforation or abscess formation is a frequent complication of delayed surgical intervention. bilharzial a. a. caused by the deposition of the eggs of the blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, in the vermiform appendix. chronic a. fibrous adhesions, scarring, or deformity of the appendix following subsidence of acute a.; fibrous obliteration of the distal lumen is not abnormal in older persons; term frequently used to refer to repeated mild attacks of acute a.. focal a. acute a. involving only part of the appendix, sometimes at the site of, or distal to, an obstruction of the lumen. foreign-body a. a. caused by obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by a foreign substance, such as a particulate foreign body. gangrenous a. acute a. with necrosis of the wall of the appendix, most commonly developing in obstructive a. and frequently causing perforation and acute peritonitis. left-sided a. a. occurring on the left side of the abdomen, usually the left-lower quadrant, due to abnormal rotation of the gut (such as situs inversus). lumbar a. acute a. in a retrodisplaced appendix in the lumbar region. obstructive a. acute a. due to infection of retained secretion behind an obstruction of the lumen by a fecalith or some other cause, including carcinoma of the cecum. perforating a. inflammation of the appendix leading to perforation of the wall of the appendix into the peritoneal cavity, resulting in peritonitis. recurrent a. repeated episodes of right lower quadrant abdominal pain attributed to recurrence of inflammation of the appendix in an individual who did not have an appendectomy for prior episodes. SYN: relapsing a.. relapsing a. SYN: recurrent a.. stercoral a. a. following a lodgment of fecal material in the appendix. subperitoneal a. a. of a subperitoneally displaced appendix. suppurative a. acute a. with purulent exudate in the lumen and wall of the appendix. verminous a. a. caused by obstruction or response to the presence of parasitic worms such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, or the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis.
An appendix, usually the vermiform appendix. [L. appendix, appendicis an appendage, fr. appendo, to hang something onto something, fr. ad-, ap-, to, onto, + pendo, to hang, + -o-]
The vermiform appendix in a hernial sac. [appendico- + G. kele, hernia]
A calcified concretion in the appendix visible on an abdominal radiograph; considered diagnostic of appendicitis in the acute abdomen. [appendico- + G. lithos, stone]
The presence of concretions in the vermiform appendix. [appendico- + G. lithos, stone]
An operation for freeing the appendix from adhesions. [appendico- + G. lysis, a loosening]
An operation for opening into the intestine through the tip of the vermiform appendix, previously attached to the anterior abdominal wall. [appendico- + G. stoma, mouth]
Use of an isolated appendix on a vascularized pedicle as a catheterizable route of access to the bladder from the skin. SEE ALSO: Mitrofanoff principle. [eppendico- + L. vesica, bladder, + G. stoma, mouth]
1. Relating to an appendix or appendage. 2. Relating to the limbs, as opposed to axial, which refers to the trunk and head.
appendix, gen. appendicis, pl .appendices (a-pen′diks, -di-sis, -di-ses)
1. SYN: appendage. 2. [TA] A wormlike intestinal diverticulum extending from the blind end of the cecum; it varies in length and ends in a blind extremity. SYN: a. vermiformis [TA] , a. ceci, processus vermiformis, vermiform appendage, vermiform a., vermiform process, vermix. [L. appendage, fr. ap-pendo, to hang something on] appendices adiposae coli omental appendices. auricular a. SYN: auricles (of atria), under auricle. a. ceci SYN: a. (2) . a. epididymidis [TA] SYN: a. of epididymidis. a. of epididymidis [TA] a small pedunculated body often attached to the head of the epididymis which is a vestige of the embryonic mesonephric duct. SYN: a. epididymidis [TA] , pedunculated hydatid. epiploic a. SYN: omental appendices. a. epiploica, pl .appendices epiploicae SYN: omental appendices. fatty appendices of colon omental appendices. a. fibrosa hepatis [TA] SYN: fibrous a. of liver. fibrous a. of liver [TA] a fibrous process, into which the tip of the left lobe of the liver may taper out, that passes with the left triangular ligament to be attached to the diaphragm. SYN: a. fibrosa hepatis [TA] . Morgagni a. SYN: pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland. omental appendices [TA] one of a number of little processes or sacs of peritoneum filled with adipose tissue and projecting from the serous coat of the large intestine, except the rectum; they are most evident on the transverse and sigmoid colon, being most numerous along the free tenia. SYN: appendices omentales [TA] , appendices adiposae coli&star, fatty appendices of colon&star, a. epiploica, epiploic appendage, epiploic a., epiploic tags. appendices omentales [TA] SYN: omental appendices. a. testis [TA] SYN: a. of testis. a. of the testis SYN: a. of testis. a. of testis [TA] a vesicular nonpedunculated structure attached to the cephalic pole of the testis; a vestige of the cephalic end of the paramesonephric (müllerian) duct. SYN: a. testis [TA] , a. of the testis, nonpedunculated hydatid, ovarium masculinum, sessile hydatid, testicular appendage. a. ventriculi laryngis SYN: laryngeal saccule. vermiform a. SYN: a. (2) . a. vermiformis [TA] SYN: a. (2) . vesicular appendices of uterine tube SYN: vesicular appendages of epoophoron, under appendage. a. vesiculosa, pl .appendices vesiculosae [TA] SYN: vesicular appendages of epoophoron, under appendage.
. . . Feedback