Medical Dictionary banner
Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


calcaneoscaphoid (kal-ka′ne-o-skaf′oyd)
SYN: calcaneonavicular.

calcaneotibial (kal-ka′ne-o-tib′e-al)
Relating to the calcaneus and the tibia.

calcaneovalgocavus (kal-ka′ne-o-val′-go-ka′vus)
Combination of talipes calcaneus, valgus, and cavus.

calcaneovalgus (kal-ka′ne-o-val′gus)
See talipes c..

calcaneovarus (kal-ka′ne-o-va′rus)
See talipes c..

calcaneum (kal-ka′ne-um)
SYN: calcaneus (1) . [L. the heel]

calcaneus, gen. and pl. calcanei (kal-ka′ne-us, -ka′ne-i)
1. [TA] The largest of the tarsal bones; it forms the heel and articulates with the cuboid anteriorly and the talus above. SYN: calcaneal bone, calcaneum, heel bone, os calcis. 2. SYN: talipes c.. [L. the heel (another form of calcaneum)]

calcar (kal′kar) [TA]
1. A small projection from any structure; internal spurs (septa) at the level of division of arteries and confluence of veins when branches or roots form an acute angle. SEE ALSO: vascular spur. 2. A dull spine or projection from a bone. SYN: spur [TA] . [L. spur, cock's spur] c. avis [TA] SYN: calcarine spur. c. femorale a bony spur springing from the underside of the neck of the femur above and anterior to the lesser trochanter, adding to the strength of this part of the bone. SYN: Bigelow septum. c. pedis SYN: calx (2) . c. sclerae [TA] SYN: scleral spur.

calcareous (kal-ka′re-us)
Chalky; relating to or containing lime or calcium, or calcific material. [L. calcarius, pertaining to lime, fr. calx, lime]

calcarine (kal′ka-ren)
1. Relating to a calcar. 2. Spur-shaped.

calcariuria (kal-kar-e-u′re-a)
Excretion of calcium (lime) salts in the urine. [L. calcarius, of lime, + G. ouron, urine]

calcergy (kal′ser-je)
Local calcification of soft tissue occurring at the site of injection of certain chemical compounds, such as lead acetate or cerium chloride; hydroxyapatite deposits are found in the calcified areas. [L. calx, chalk, calcium, + G. ergon, work, production]

calces (kal′sez)
Plural of calx.

calcic (kal′sik)
Relating to lime.

calcicosis (kal-si-ko′sis)
Pneumoconiosis from the inhalation of limestone dust.

calcidiol (kal-si-di′ol)
25-Hydroxycholecalciferol (a 3,25-diol);the first step in the biologic conversion of vitamin D3 to the more active form, calcitriol; it is more potent than vitamin D3. SYN: 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, calcifediol. c. 1α-hydroxylase, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol 1α-hydroxylase the monooxygenase that forms calcitriol from c. using O2 and NADPH; a deficiency in this enzyme can result in features of a vitamin D deficiency.

calcifediol (kal-si-fe-di′ol)
SYN: calcidiol.

calciferol (kal-sif′er-ol)
SYN: ergocalciferol.

calciferous (kal-sif′er-us)
1. Containing lime. 2. Producing any of the salts of calcium. SYN: calcophorous.

calcific (kal-sif′ik)
Forming or depositing calcium salts.

calcification (kal′si-fi-ka′shun)
1. Deposition of lime or other insoluble calcium salts. 2. A process in which tissue or noncellular material in the body becomes hardened as the result of precipitates or larger deposits of insoluble salts of calcium (and also magnesium), especially calcium carbonate and phosphate (hydroxyapatite) normally occurring only in the formation of bone and teeth. SYN: calcareous infiltration. [L. calx, lime, + facio, to make] dystrophic c. c. occurring in degenerated or necrotic tissue, as in hyalinized scars, degenerated foci in leiomyomas, and caseous nodules. eggshell c. a thin layer of c. around an intrathoracic lymph node, usually in silicosis, seen on a chest radiograph. metastatic c. c. occurring in nonosseous, viable tissue ( i.e., tissue that is not degenerated or necrotic), as in the stomach, lungs, and kidneys (and rarely in other sites); the cells of these organs secrete acid materials, and, under certain conditions in instances of hypercalcemia, the alteration in pH causes precipitation of calcium salts in these sites. Mönckeberg c. SYN: Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis. Mönckeberg medial c. SYN: Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis. pathologic c. c. occurring in excretory or secretory passages as calculi, and in tissues other than bone and teeth. pulp c. SYN: endolith.

calcify (kal′si-fi)
To deposit or lay down calcium salts, as in the formation of bone.

calcigerous (kal-sij′er-us)
Producing or carrying calcium salts. [calcium + L. gero, to bear]

calcination (kal-si-na′shun)
The process of calcining.

calcine (kal′sen)
To expel water and volatile matter by heat.

calcineurin (kal-se-noor′in)
A calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase involved in T-cell signaling transcription; the reaction cascade in which it resides is referred to as the c. pathway. [calcium + G. neuron, nerve, + -in]

calcinosis (kal-si-no′sis)
A condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in nodular foci in various tissues other than the parenchymatous viscera; the two well-known forms, c. circumscripta and c. universalis, are not associated with tissue damage or demonstrable metabolic disease; other forms are the result of abnormal calcium and/or phosphorous metabolism. See metastatic calcification. [calcium + -osis, condition] c. circumscripta localized deposits of calcium salts in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, usually surrounded by a zone of granulomatous inflammation; clinically, the lesions resemble the tophi of gout. c. cutis a deposit of calcium in the skin; usually occurs secondary to a preexisting inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic dermatosis, and is frequently seen in scleroderma. See metastatic calcification. SYN: dystrophic c.. dystrophic c. SYN: c. cutis. c. intervertebralis calcium deposit in vertebral disk. reversible c. a form of c. that can be reversed, as is observed in patients who constantly ingest large quantities of milk and alkaline medicines, as in the treatment of peptic ulcer. SEE ALSO: milk-alkali syndrome. tumoral c. 1. calcification of collagen, chiefly at the site of large joints, in South African blacks; probably genetic. 2. c. that develops in association with neoplastic conditions. c. universalis diffuse deposits of calcium salts in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, connective tissue, and other sites; may be associated with dermatomyositis, occurs more frequently in young persons, and is often fatal; serum levels of calcium and phosphorus are generally within normal limits.

calciokinesis (kal′se-o-ki-ne′sis)
Mobilization of stored calcium. [calcium + G. kinesis, motion]

calciokinetic (kal′se-o-ki-net′ik)
Pertaining to or causing calciokinesis.

calciol (kal′se-ol)
SYN: cholecalciferol.

calciorrhachia (kal′se-o-ra′ke-a)
The presence of calcium in the cerebrospinal fluid. [calcium + G. rhachis, spine + -ia]

calciostat (kal′se-o-stat)
Rarely used term denoting a postulated mechanism by which the parathyroid hormone production is increased when serum calcium is low and decreased when it is high. [calcium + G. statos, standing]

calciotraumatic (kal′se-o-traw-mat′ik)
Relating to the line of disturbed calcification that appears in the dentin of the incisor teeth of young rats placed on a rachitogenic diet: high in calcium and low in phosphorus, with no vitamin D.

calcipectic (kal-si-pek′tik)
Pertaining to calcipexis.

calcipenia (kal-si-pe′ne-a)
A condition in which there is an insufficient amount of calcium in the tissues and fluids of the body. [calcium + G. penia, poverty]

calcipenic (kal-si-pe′nik)
Pertaining to calcipenia.

calcipexic (kal-si-pek′sik)
Related or pertaining to calcipexis.

calcipexis, calcipexy (kal-si-pek′sis, kal′si-pek-se)
Fixation of calcium in the tissues, an occasional cause of tetany in infants. [calcium + G. pexis, a fixing]

calciphilia (cal-si-fil′e-a)
A condition in which the tissues manifest an unusual affinity for, and fixation of, calcium salts circulating in the blood. [calcium + G. phileo, to love]

calciphylaxis (kal′si-fi-lak′sis)
A condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden, but sometimes evanescent, local calcification.

calciprivia (kal-si-priv′e-a)
Absence or deprivation of calcium in diet.

calciprivic (kal-si-priv′ik)
Deprived of calcium.

calcite (kal′sit)
A naturally occurring mineral found in several forms, e.g., chalk, Iceland spar, limestone, marble. SEE ALSO: calcium carbonate. SYN: calcspar.

calcitetrol (kal-si-tet′rol)
The 1,24,25-triol (thus, a 1,3,24,24-tetrol) of cholecalciferol; the inactivation product of calcitriol.

calcitonin (kal-si-to′nin)
A peptide hormone, of which eight forms in five species are known; composed of 32 amino acids and produced by the parathyroid, thyroid, and thymus glands; its action is opposite to that of parathyroid hormone in that c. increases deposition of calcium and phosphate in bone and lowers the level of calcium in the blood; its level in the blood is increased by glucagon and by Ca2+ and thus opposes postprandial hypercalcemia. SYN: thyrocalcitonin. [calci- + G. tonos, stretching, + -in]

calcitriol (kal-si-tri′ol)
1α,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (thus, a 1,3,25-triol);formation of c. is the second step in the biological conversion of vitamin D3 to its active form; it is more potent than calcidiol.

calcium (Ca) , gen. calcii (kal′se-um, -se-i)
A metallic bivalent element; atomic no. 20, atomic wt. 40.078, density 1.55, melting point 842°C. The oxide of c. is an alkaline earth, CaO, quicklime, which on the addition of water becomes c. hydrate, Ca(OH)2, slaked lime. For some organic c. salts not listed below, see the name of the organic acid portion. Many c. salts have crucial uses in metabolism and in medicine. C. salts are responsible for the radiopacity of bone, calcified cartilage, and arteriosclerotic plaques in arteries. [Mod. L. fr. L. calx, lime] c. alginate a topical hemostatic. c. aminosalicylate the c. salt of p-aminosalicylic acid, with the same uses. c. benzoylpas an antituberculous agent. c. bromide used to meet the same indications as potassium bromide. c. carbide blackish crystalline lumps that when in contact with water yield acetylene gas. c. carbimide a fertilizer and weed seed killer that also exhibits antithyroid activity; like disulfiram, it impairs ethanol metabolism; workers in cyanamide-producing plants exhibit systemic symptoms (“Monday-morning illness”) after ingestion of alcohol. SYN: c. cyanamide. c. carbonate an astringent, antacid, and c. dietary supplement. SEE ALSO: calcite. SYN: chalk, creta. c. caseinate the form of casein present in cow's milk; used in dietetic preparations; has been used for diarrhea in infants. c. chloride used to correct c. deficiencies and in the treatment of magnesium intoxication and cardiac failure. citrated c. carbimide a mixture of two parts citric acid to one part c. carbimide; in the metabolism of ethanol, it slows the conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate; used in the treatment of alcoholism. crude c. sulfide used externally in the treatment of acne, scabies, and ringworm. SYN: sulfurated lime. c. cyanamide SYN: c. carbimide. dibasic c. phosphate used as a c. and phosphorus dietary supplement. SYN: c. monohydrogen phosphate, secondary c. phosphate. c. folinate SYN: leucovorin c.. c. glubionate a c. replenisher. c. gluceptate used as a nutrient. SYN: c. glucoheptonate. c. glucoheptonate SYN: c. gluceptate. c. gluconate a salt of c. more palatable than the chloride, sometimes used as a c. supplement. c. glycerophosphate a c. and phosphorus dietary supplement. c. hippurate said to be a solvent of uratic gravel and calculi. c. hydroxide used as a carbon dioxide absorbent. c. hypophosphite has been used for rickets and impaired nutrition. c. iodate used as a dusting powder and, in lotion and ointment, as an antiseptic and deodorant. c. iodobehenate a c. salt, (C21H42ICOO)2Ca, formerly used to meet the indications of the ordinary iodides. c. ipodate a radiopaque medium used in cholangiography and cholecystography. c. lactate used as a c. replenisher. c. lactophosphate a mixture of c. lactate, c. acid lactate, and c. acid phosphate; used as a c. and phosphorus dietary supplement. c. leucovorin leucovorin c.. c. levulinate a hydrated c. salt of levulinic acid; it has the usual effects of c. administered orally or intravenously. c. mandelate c. salt of mandelic acid; a urinary anti-infective agent. milk of c. densely calcified fluid, most often found radiographically in the gallbladder in association with chronic obstruction. c. monohydrogen phosphate SYN: dibasic c. phosphate. c. oxalate found as sediment in the urine and in urinary calculi. Toxic end product of ethylene glycol consumption. c. oxide SYN: lime (1) . c. pantothenate the c. salt of pantothenic acid; a vitamin B filtrate factor. precipitated c. carbonate used as an antacid in the management of peptic ulcers and other conditions of gastric hyperacidity. c. propionate the c. salt of propionic acid; an antifungal agent. racemic c. pantothenate a mixture of the c. salts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory isomers of pantothenic acid; same uses as c. pantothenate. c. saccharate used as an antacid in dyspepsia and flatulence, as an antidote in carbolic acid poisoning, and as a stabilizer for c. gluconate solution for parenteral administration. secondary c. phosphate SYN: dibasic c. phosphate. c. stearate a soap used in the preparation of tablets as a lubricant for tablet machinery and to keep powder mixtures flowing. c. sulfate CaO4S;used in exsiccated form to make plaster of Paris. SEE ALSO: gypsum. c. sulfite used as an intestinal antiseptic, and locally in the treatment of parasitic skin diseases. tertiary c. phosphate SYN: tribasic c. phosphate. tribasic c. phosphate used as an antacid. SYN: bone ash, bone phosphate, tertiary c. phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, whitlockite. c. trisodium pentetate SYN: pentetate trisodium c..

calcium-45 (45Ca)
Most easily available of the radioactive calcium isotopes; beta-emitter with a half-life of 162.7 days; used as a tracer.

calcium-47 (47Ca)
A radioisotope of calcium with a half-life of 4.54 days, used in the diagnosis of disorders of calcium metabolism.

calcium group
The metals of the alkaline earths: beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium.

calciuria (kal-se-u′re-a)
The urinary excretion of calcium; sometimes used as a synonym for hypercalciuria.

calcophorous (kal-kof′er-us)
SYN: calciferous. [L. calx, lime, + G. phoros, bearing]

calcospherite (kal-ko-sfer′it)
A tiny, spheroidal, concentrically laminated body containing accretive deposits of calcium salts; found most frequently in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and ovary, and in meningioma, probably as the result of degenerative changes in the fibrovascular stroma. SYN: psammoma bodies (3) . [L. calx, lime, + G. sphaira, sphere]

calcspar (kalk′spar)
SYN: calcite.

calculi (kal′ku-li)
Plural of calculus.

calculosis (kal-ku-lo′sis)
The tendency or disposition to form calculi or stones. [L. calculus, small stone, + G. -osis, condition]

calculus, gen. and pl. calculi (kal′ku-lus, -li)
A concretion formed in any part of the body, most commonly in the passages of the biliary and urinary tracts; usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids, or of other material such as cholesterol. SYN: stone (1) . [L. a pebble, a c.] apatite c. a c. in which the crystalloid component consists of calcium fluorophosphate. arthritic c. SYN: gouty tophus. biliary c. SYN: gallstone. bladder c. SYN: bladder stone, under stone. blood c. an angiolith or concretion of coagulated blood. SYN: hemic c.. branched c. SYN: staghorn c.. bronchial c. SYN: broncholith. cerebral c. SYN: encephalolith. coral c. SYN: staghorn c.. cystine c. a c. composed of cystine, soft and faintly radiopaque. dendritic c. SYN: staghorn c.. dental c. 1. calcified deposits formed around the teeth; may appear as subgingival or supragingival c.; 2. SYN: tartar (2) . encysted c. a urinary c. enclosed in a sac developed from the wall of the bladder. SYN: pocketed c.. fibrin c. a urinary c. formed largely from fibrinogen in blood. gastric c. SYN: gastrolith. hematogenetic c. SYN: serumal c. (1) . hemic c. SYN: blood c.. infection c. SYN: secondary renal c.. intestinal c. a concretion in the bowel, either a coprolith or an enterolith. lacrimal c. SYN: dacryolith. mammary c. a concretion in one of the ducts of the breast. matrix c. a yellowish-white to light tan urinary c. containing calcium salts, with the consistency of putty; composed chiefly of an organic matrix consisting of a mucoprotein and a sulfated mucopolysaccharide, and usually associated with chronic infection. metabolic c. a stone, usually a renal stone, caused by a metabolic abnormality resulting in increased excretion of a substance of low solubility in urine, such as urate or cystine. mulberry c. a hard nodular urinary c. composed of calcium oxalate, so-called because of its resemblance to a mulberry. nasal c. SYN: rhinolith. oxalate c. a hard urinary c. of calcium oxalate; some are covered with minute sharp spines that can abrade the renal pelvic epithelium, whereas others are smooth. pancreatic c. a concretion, usually multiple, in the pancreatic duct, associated with chronic pancreatitis. SYN: pancreatolith, pancreolith. pharyngeal c. SYN: pharyngolith. pleural c. SYN: pleurolith. pocketed c. SYN: encysted c.. preputial c. a c. occurring beneath the foreskin. SYN: postholith. primary renal c. a c. formed in an apparently healthy urinary tract, usually composed of oxalates, urates, or cystine. prostatic c. a concretion formed in the prostate gland, composed chiefly of calcium carbonate and phosphate (corpora amylacea). SYN: prostatolith. pulp c. SYN: endolith. renal c. a c. occurring within the kidney collecting system. SYN: nephrolith. salivary c. a c. in a salivary duct or gland. secondary renal c. a c. associated with infection and/or obstruction, usually composed of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). SYN: infection c.. serumal c. 1. a greenish or dark brown calcareous deposit on the tooth, usually apical to the gingival margin; SYN: hematogenetic c.. 2. SYN: subgingival c.. staghorn c. a c. occurring in the renal pelvis, with branches extending into the infundibula and calices. SYN: branched c., coral c., dendritic c.. struvite c. a c. in which the crystalloid component consists of magnesium ammonium phosphate; usually associated with urinary tract infection caused by urease-producing bacteria. subgingival c. calcareous deposit found on the tooth apical to the gingival margin. SYN: serumal c. (2) . supragingival c. calcified plaques adherent to tooth surfaces coronal to the free gingival margin. tonsillar c. SYN: tonsillolith. urethral c. a stone impacted in urethra. May have formed proximally and become stuck there or may have formed in urethra; uncommon. urinary c. a c. in the kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethra. SYN: urolith. uterine c. a calcified myoma of the uterus. SYN: uterolith. vesical c. a urinary c. formed or retained in the bladder. SYN: cystolith. weddellite c. a c. in which the crystalloid component consists of calcium oxalate dihydrate. whewellite c. a c. in which the crystalloid component consists of calcium oxalate monohydrate.

Calculus Surface Index (CSI)
An index that measures only dental calculus, used for evaluating new calculus formation within a large group of test subjects.

Leopoldo M.A., Italian anatomist, 1725–1813. See C. ligament.

caldesmon (kal-des′mon)
An F-actin cross-linking protein that, at low or absent calcium levels, binds to tropomyosin and actin and prevents myosin binding. [calcium + G. desmos, bond, fr. deo, to bind]

George W., U.S. otolaryngologist, 1834–1918. See C.-Luc operation.

William E., U.S. obstetrician, 1880–1943. See C.-Moloy classification.

Eugene W., U.S. radiologist, 1870–1918. See C. projection, C. view.

calefacient (kal-e-fa′shent)
1. Making warm or hot. 2. An agent causing a sense of warmth in the part to which it is applied. [L. calefacio, fr. caleo, to be warm, + facio, to make]


. . . Feedback