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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


calf, pl .calves (kaf, kavz)
A young bovine animal, male or female. [Gael. kalpa]

1. SYN: fibula. 2. Bone from a calf (young cow) used in orthopedic reconstruction.

caliber (kal′i-ber)
The diameter of a hollow tubular structure. [Fr. calibre, of uncert. etym.]

calibrate (kal′i-brat)
1. To graduate or standardize any measuring instrument. 2. To measure the diameter of a tubular structure.

calibration (kal-i-bra′shun)
The act of standardizing or calibrating an instrument or laboratory procedure.

calibrator (kal′i-bra-ter, -tor)
A standard or reference material or substance used to standardize or calibrate an instrument or laboratory procedure.

caliceal (kal′i-se′al)
Relating to the calix. SYN: calyceal.

calicectasis (kal-i-sek′ta-sis)
SYN: caliectasis. [calix + G. ektasis, dilation]

calicectomy (kal-i-sek′to-me)
SYN: calicotomy. [calix, + G. ektome, excision]

calices (kal′i-sez)
Plural of calix.

caliciform (ka-lis′i-form)
Shaped like a cup or goblet. SYN: calyciform. [L. calix + forma, form]

calicine (kal′i-sen)
Of the nature of, or resembling a calix. SYN: calycine.

Caliciviridae (kal′i-se-vi′ra-de)
A family of naked icosahedral single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses 30–38 mm in diameter associated with epidemic viral gastroenteritis and certain forms of hepatitis in humans.

Calicivirus (ka-lis′i-vi′rus)
A genus in the family Caliciviridae that is associated with gastroenteritis. See hepatitis E virus, Norwalk agent. [G. kalyx, cup, + virus]

calicoplasty (ka′li-so-plas-te)
SYN: calioplasty. [calix, + G. plastos, formed]

calicotomy (kal-i-sot′o-me)
Incision into a calix, usually for removal of a calculus. SYN: calicectomy, caliotomy. [calix, + G. tome, a cutting]

caliculus, pl .caliculi (ka-lik′u-lus, li)
A bud-shaped or cup-shaped structure, resembling the closed calyx of a flower. SYN: calycle, calyculus. [L. dim. from G. kalyx, the cup of a flower] c. gustatorius SYN: taste bud. c. ophthalmicus SYN: optic cup.

caliectasis (ka-le-ek′ta-sis)
Dilation of the calices, usually due to obstruction or infection. SYN: calicectasis, pyelocaliectasis.

californium (Cf) (kal-i-for′ne-um)
An artificial transuranium element, symbol Cf, atomic no. 98, atomic wt. 251.08; half-life of 251Cf (the most stable known isotope) is 900 years. [California, state and university where first prepared]

calioplasty (ka′le-o-plas-te)
Surgical reconstruction of a calix, usually designed to increase its lumen at the infundibulum. SYN: calicoplasty.

caliorrhaphy (ka′le-or-a-fe)
1. Suturing of a calix. 2. Plastic surgery of a dilated or obstructed calix to improve urinary drainage, often requiring combination of two or more calices or the massive movement of renal pelvic mucosa to rebuild the caliceal drainage system. [calix, + G. rhaphe, suture, seam]

caliotomy (ka-le-ot′o-me)
SYN: calicotomy.

calipers (kal′i-perz)
An instrument used for measuring diameters. [a corruption of caliber]

calisthenics (kal-is-then′iks)
Systematic practice of various exercises with the object of preserving health and increasing physical strength. [G. kalos, beautiful, + sthenos, strength]

calix, pl .calices (ka′liks, kal′i-sez)
A flower-shaped or funnel-shaped structure; specifically one of the branches or recesses of the pelvis of the kidney into which the orifices of the malpighian renal pyramids project. SYN: calyx. [L. fr. G. kalyx, the cup of a flower] major calices the primary subdivisions of the renal pelvis, usually two or three in number. SYN: calices renales majores. minor calices the subdivisions of the major calices, varying in number from 7–13, which receive the renal papillae. SYN: calices renales minores. calices renales majores SYN: major calices. calices renales minores SYN: minor calices.

Leroy Adelbert, U.S. obstetrician-gynecologist, 1894–1960. See C. sign.

Friedrich von, Austrian physician, 1844–1917. See C.-Exner bodies, under body.

John R., U.S. endodontist, 1853–1918. See C. method.

Latimer, San Francisco surgeon, 1892–1947. See C. amputation.

Calleja, Calleja y Sanchez
Camilo, Spanish anatomist, &dag;1913. See islands of C., under island.

Calliphora (ka-lif′o-ra)
A genus of blowflies (family Calliphoridae, order Diptera), the bluebottle flies, the larvae of which feed on dead flesh. C. vomitoria and C. vicina are common species in the U.S. [G. kalli, beauty, + phoros, bearing]

James S., U.S. physician, *1873. See C. fluid.

Callitroga (kal-i-tro′ga)
Former name for Cochliomyia.

callosal (ka-lo′sal)
Relating to the corpus callosum.

callose (kal′os)
A linear 1,3-β-d-glucan formed by certain enzymes from UDP-glucose, differing from cellulose (a β-1,4-glucan formed from GDP-glucose) and starch amylose (an α-1,4-glucan formed from ADP-glucose). Found in certain plant cell walls.

callosity (ka-los′i-te)
A circumscribed thickening of the keratin layer of the epidermis as a result of repeated friction or intermittent pressure. SYN: callus (1) , keratoma (1) , poroma (1) . [L. fr. callosus, thick-skinned]

callosomarginal (ka-lo′so-mar′jin-al)
Relating to the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus; denoting the sulcus between them. SEE ALSO: sulcus of corpus callosum.

callous (kal′us)
Relating to a callus or callosity.

callus (kal′us)
1. SYN: callosity. 2. A composite mass of tissue that forms at a fracture site to establish continuity between the bone ends; it is composed initially of uncallused fibrous tissue and cartilage, and ultimately of bone. [L. hard skin] central c. the c. within the medullary cavity of a fractured bone. SYN: medullary c.. definitive c. the c. which has become converted into osseous tissue. SYN: permanent c.. ensheathing c. the mass of c. around the outside of the fractured bone. medullary c. SYN: central c.. permanent c. SYN: definitive c.. provisional c. the c. that develops to keep the ends of the fractured bone in apposition; it is absorbed after union is complete. SYN: temporary c.. temporary c. SYN: provisional c..

calmative (kahl′ma-tiv)
Calming, quieting; allaying excitement; denoting such an agent.

Leon A., French bacteriologist, 1863–1933. See bacille C.-Guérin, bacillus C.-Guérin vaccine, C. test, C.-Guérin bacillus, C.-Guérin vaccine.

calmodulin (kal-mod′u-lin)
A small, ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that binds calcium ions, thereby becoming the agent for many of the cellular effects long ascribed to calcium ions. This calcium-protein complex binds to the apoenzyme, to form the holoenzyme, of certain phosphodiesterases; through these, or other as yet unknown mechanisms, the complex regulates adenylate and guanylate cyclases, many kinases, phospholipase A2 activity, and other basic cellular functions. [calcium + modulate]

Calodium (ka-lo′de-oom)
One of three trichurid nematode genera, commonly referred to as Capillaria.

calomel (kal′o-mel)
Mild mercury chloride; mercury monochloride, protochloride, or subchloride; has been used as an intestinal antiseptic and laxative; replaced by safer agents. SYN: mercurous chloride, sweet precipitate. [Mediev. L., fr. G. kalos, beautiful, + melas, black] vegetable c. SYN: podophyllum.

calor (ka′lor)
Heat, as one of the four signs of inflammation (c., rubor, tumor, dolor) enunciated by Celsus. [L.]

Luigi, Italian anatomist, 1807–1896. See C. bursa.

caloric (ka-lor′ik)
1. Relating to a calorie. 2. Relating to heat. [L. calor, heat] c. intake the total number of calories in a daily diet allocation.

calorie (kal′o-re)
A unit of heat content or energy. The amount of heat necessary to raise 1 g of water from 14.5–15.5°C (small c.). C. is being replaced by joule, the SI unit equal to 0.239 c.. SEE ALSO: British thermal unit. SYN: calory. [L. calor, heat] gram c. SYN: small c.. kilogram c. (kcal) SYN: large c.. large c. (Cal, C) the quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1°C (more precisely from 14.5°–15.5°C); it is 1000 times the value of the small c.; used in measurements of the heat production of chemical reactions, including those involved in biology. SYN: kilocalorie, kilogram c.. mean c. one hundredth of the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water from 0–100°C. small c. (cal, c) the quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1°C, or from 14.5–15.5°C in the case of normal or standard c.. SYN: gram c..

calorific (cal-o-rif′ik)
Producing heat. [L. calor, heat]

calorigenic (ka-lor-i-jen′ik)
1. Capable of generating heat. 2. Stimulating metabolic production of heat. SYN: thermogenetic (2) , thermogenic. [L. calor, heat, + G. genesis, production]

calorimeter (kal-o-rim′e-ter)
An apparatus for measuring the amount of heat liberated in a chemical reaction. [L. calor, heat, + G. metron, measure] Benedict-Roth c. Benedict-Roth apparatus. bomb c. an instrument for determining the potential energy of organic substances, including those in foods. It consists of a hollow steel container, lined with platinum and filled with pure oxygen, into which a weighed quantity of substance is placed and ignited with an electric fuse; the heat produced is absorbed by water surrounding the bomb and, from the rise in temperature, the calories liberated are calculated.

calorimetric (ka′lor-i-met′rik)
Relating to calorimetry.

calorimetry (kal-o-rim′e-tre)
Measurement of the amount of heat given off by a reaction or group of reactions (as by an organism). direct c. measurement of the heat produced by a reaction, as distinguished from indirect methods, which involve measurement of something other than heat production itself. indirect c. determination of heat production of an oxidation reaction by measuring uptake of oxygen and/or liberation of carbon dioxide and nitrogen excretion and then calculating the amount of heat produced.

caloritropic (ka-lor′i-trop′ik)
Relating to thermotropism.

calory (kal′o-re)
SYN: calorie.

Jean-François, French surgeon, 1861–1944. See C. triangle.

calpains (kal′pans)
Calcium-dependent thiol proteinases. These are cytoplasmic mammalian enzymes. [calcium + suffix -pain, protease, fr. papain]

calsequestrin (kal′se-kwes′trin)
A calcium-binding protein found in the interior of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscles. It releases calcium ions at calcium channels. [calcium + sequester + -in]

calumba (ka-lum′ba)
The dried root of Jateorrhiza palmata (family Menispermaceae), a tall climbing vine of east Africa; used as a bitter tonic.

calumbin (kal′um-bin)
An amaroid from calumba that accounts for the bitterness of the crude drug.

calusterone (kal-u′ste-ron)
An antineoplastic agent.

calvaria, pl .calvariae (kal-va′re-a, -va′re-e) [TA]
The upper domelike portion of the skull. SYN: roof of skull, skullcap. [L. a skull]

calvarial (kal-var′e-al)
Relating to the skullcap.

calvarium (kal-var′e-um)
Incorrectly used for calvaria.

Jacques, French orthopedic surgeon, 1875–1954. See Calvé-Perthes disease, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

calvities (kal-vish′e-ez)
SYN: alopecia. [L. fr. calvus, bald]

calx, gen. calcis, pl .calces (kalks, kal′sis, kal-ses)
1. SYN: lime (1) . [L. limestone] 2. The posterior rounded extremity of the foot. SYN: heel (2) [TA] , calcar pedis. [L. heel]

calyceal (kal′i-se′al)
SYN: caliceal.


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