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Medical Dictionary


calyces (kal′i-sez)
Plural of calyx.

calyciform (ka-lis′i-form)
SYN: caliciform.

calycine (kal′i-sen)
SYN: calicine.

calycle, calyculus (kal′i-kl, ka-lik′u-lus)
SYN: caliculus.

Calymmatobacterium (ka-lim′ma-to-bak-ter′e-um)
A genus of nonmotile bacteria (of uncertain taxonomic classification) containing Gram-negative, pleomorphic rods with single or bipolar condensations of chromatin; cells occur singly and in clusters. Outside the human body, growth occurs only in the yolk sac or amniotic fluid of a developing chick embryo or in a medium containing embryonic yolk; the organisms are pathogenic only for humans. The type species is C. granulomatis. [G. kalymma, hood, veil, + bakterion, rod] C. granulomatis a bacterial species causing granulomatous lesions (granuloma inguinale or granuloma venereum) (donovanosis) in humans, particularly in the inguinal region; the type species of the genus C..

calyx, pl .calyces (ka′liks, kal′i-sez)
SYN: calix. [G. cup of a flower]

Abbreviation for cell adhesion molecule.

cambendazole (kam-ben′dah-zol)
A anthelmintic.

cambium (kam′be-um)
The inner layer of the periosteum in membranous ossification. [L. exchange]

camera, pl .cameraecameras (kam′er-a, -e) [TA]
1. SYN: anterior chamber of eyeball. 2. A closed box; especially one containing a lens, shutter, and light-sensitive film or plates for photography. [L. a vault] Anger c. a scintigraphic imaging system or type of gamma c., employing a single thin crystal and multiple photodetecting circuits that views the entire field at once and is most effective in the 100- to 511-keV energy range. c. anterior bulbi [TA] SYN: anterior chamber of eyeball. camerae bulbi [TA] SYN: chambers of eyeball, under chamber. gamma c. any one of several scintigraphic cameras that simultaneously record counts from the entire field of view. SYN: scintillation c.. multiformat c. photographic or laser printer for recording a variable number of digital images on a sheet of film, as in computed tomography or ultrasound. c. oculi anterior SYN: anterior chamber of eyeball. c. oculi major SYN: anterior chamber of eyeball. c. oculi minor SYN: posterior chamber of eyeball. c. oculi posterior SYN: posterior chamber of eyeball. c. posterior bulbi [TA] SYN: posterior chamber of eyeball. c. postrema [TA] SYN: postremal chamber of eyeball. retinal c. an instrument for photographing the ocular fundus. scintillation c. SYN: gamma c.. c. vitrea postremal chamber of eyeball. c. vitrea bulbi postremal chamber of eyeball. vitreous c. SYN: postremal chamber of eyeball.

camerostome (kam′er-o-stom)
Ventral depression of the anterior cephalothorax of soft ticks (family Argasidae) in which the mouthparts (capitulum) lie. [L. camera, a vault, + G. stoma, mouth]

camisole (kam′i-sol)
SYN: straitjacket.

camomile (kam′o-mil)
SYN: chamomile.

Abbreviation for adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP).

William F., U.S. surgeon, 1867–1926. See C. ligament.

Meredith F., U.S. pediatric urologist, 1894-1969. See C. sound.

Pieter, Dutch physician and anatomist, 1721–1789. See C. chiasm, fatty layer of subcutaneous tissue of abdomen, C. ligament, C. line, C. plane.

camphene (kam′fen)
A terpenoid occurring in many essential oils, e.g., turpentine, camphor, citronella.

camphor (kam′for)
A ketone distilled from the bark and wood of Cinnamonum camphora, an evergreen tree of Taiwan and Southeast Asia and the adjoining islands, and also prepared synthetically from oil of turpentine; used in a variety of commercial products and as a topical antiinfective and antipruritic agent. [mediev. L., fr. Ar. kafure] cantharis c. SYN: cantharidin. c. liniment a mixture of c. and cottonseed oil, or c. and arachis oil; a mild counterirritant. SYN: camphorated oil. monobromated c. obsolete term for an antispasmodic, soporific, and sedative. tar c. SYN: naphthalene. thyme c. SYN: thymol.

camphoraceous (kam-fo-ra′shus)
Resembling camphor in appearance, consistency, or odor.

camphorated (kam′fo-ra-ted)
Containing camphor.

camphorated oil
SYN: camphor liniment.

campi foreli (kam′pe for-el′e)
SYN: fields of Forel, under field. [L. pl. of campus, field]

campimeter (kam-pim′e-ter)
A small tangent screen used to measure central visual field. [L. campus, field, + G. metron, measure]

SYN: camptodactyly.

campothecins (kam-po-tha′sinz)
Antitumor agents acting as topoisomerase inhibitors; include irinotecan and topotecan.

cAMP phosphodiesterase
SYN: adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate phosphodiesterase.

camptocormia (kamp-to-kor′me-a)
Static, often marked forward flexion of the trunk; usually manifestation of conversion reaction. SYN: camptospasm, prosternation. [G. kamptos, bent, + kormos, trunk of a tree]

camptodactyly, camptodactylia (kamp-to-dak′ti-le, -dak-til′e-a)
Permanent flexion of one or both interphalangeal joints of one or more fingers, usually the little finger; often congenital in origin. SYN: camplodactyly, streblodactyly. [G. kamptos, bent, + daktylos, finger]

camptomelia (kamp-to-me′le-a)
A skeletal dysplasia characterized by a bending of the long bones of the extremities, resulting in a permanent bowing or curvature of the affected part. [G. kamptos, bent, + melos, limb]

camptomelic (kamp-to-mel′ik)
Denoting or characteristic of camptomelia. See c. syndrome.

camptospasm (kamp′to-spazm)
SYN: camptocormia.

camptothecin (kamp-to-thek′in)
Plant alkaloids consisting of a pentacyclic structure with a lactone ring; inhibitors of topoisomerase I, i.e., topotecan and irinotecan (CPT-11). [Camptotheca, genus name of botanic source]

Campylobacter (kam′pi-lo-bak′ter)
A genus of bacteria containing Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, spiral or S-curved rods with a single flagellum at one or both ends of the cell; cells may also become spherical under adverse conditions; they are motile with a corkscrewlike motion and nonsacchrolytic. The type species is C. fetus. [G. campylos, curved, + baktron, staff or rod] C. coli a thermophilic bacterial species that causes first watery, then inflammatory, diarrheal disease in humans and in piglets. C. concisus a catalase-negative bacterial species isolated from normal human fecal flora, gingival crevices in periodontal disease, and occasionally blood. C. fetus a bacterial species that contains various subspecies which can cause human infections as well as abortion in sheep and cattle; it is the type species of the genus C.. C. fetus jejuni former name for C. jejuni. C. hyointestinalis a bacterial species that causes an enteropathy in pigs; has been recovered from fecal specimens in humans with diarrhea and with proctitis, but its pathogenic role has not been defined. C. jejuni a thermophilic bacterial species that causes in humans an acute gastroenteritis of sudden onset with constitutional symptoms (malaise, myalgia, arthralgia, and headache) and cramping abdominal pain; it has been associated with a demyelinating sequela, which can present with ascending paralysis. Potential sources of human infection include poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs, and dogs. This species also causes abortion in sheep. C. lari a bacterial species primarily carried in birds, but associated with water-borne enteritis and occasionally septicemia in humans. C. pylori SYN: Helicobacter pylori. C. sputorum a facultative, microaerophilic, catalase-negative species found in the genital tract and feces of sheep and cattle and in the human oral cavity; a cause of human bronchitis.

campylobacteriosis (kam′pi-lo-bak′ter-e-o′sis)
Infection caused by microaerophilic bacteria of the genus Campylobacter.

Wilma J., U.S. radiologist. See Cronkhite-C. syndrome.

canadine (kan′a-den)
C20H21NO4;an alkaloid present in Hydrastis canadensis (family Ranunculaceae) and in Corydalis cava (family Fumaraceae) with sedative and muscle relaxant properties. SYN: xanthopuccine.

canal (ka-nal′) [TA]
A duct or channel; a tubular structure. SEE ALSO: c., duct. SYN: canalis [TA] . [L. canalis] abdominal c. SYN: inguinal c.. accessory c. a channel leading from the root pulp laterally through the dentin to the periodontal tissue; may be found anywhere in the tooth root, but is more common in the apical third of the root. SYN: lateral c.. adductor c. [TA] the space in middle third of the thigh between the vastus medialis and adductor muscles, converted into a c. by the overlying sartorius muscle. It gives passage to the femoral vessels and saphenous nerve, ending at the adductor hiatus. SYN: canalis adductorius [TA] , Hunter c., subsartorial c.. Alcock c. SYN: pudendal c.. alimentary c. SYN: digestive tract. alveolar canals of maxilla [TA] canals in the body of the maxilla that transmit nerves and vessels from the alveolar foramina to the maxillary teeth. SYN: canales alveolares corporis maxillae [TA] , alveolodental canals, dental canals. alveolodental canals SYN: alveolar canals of maxilla. anal c. [TA] terminal portion of the alimentary c.; about 4 cm in length, beginning at the anorectal junction, where the rectal ampulla rather abruptly narrows as the alimentary c. pierces the pelvic diaphragm (levator ani), and ending at the anal verge, when the anoderm that lines the lower anal c. changes to hairy perianal skin; surrounded by the internal and external anal sphincters. SYN: canalis analis [TA] . anterior condyloid c. of occipital bone SYN: hypoglossal c.. anterior semicircular canals semicircular canals of bony labyrinth. archenteric c. invagination of the blastopore into the notochordal process to form a cavity. See neurenteric c.. SYN: notochordal c.. Arnold c. SYN: hiatus for lesser petrosal nerve. arterial c. SYN: ductus arteriosus. atrioventricular c. the c. in the embryonic heart leading from the common sinuatrial chamber to the ventricle. auditory c. SYN: external acoustic meatus. basipharyngeal c. SYN: vomerovaginal c.. Bernard c. SYN: accessory pancreatic duct. Bichat c. SYN: quadrigeminal cistern. birth c. cavity of the uterus and vagina through which the fetus passes. SYN: parturient c.. blastoporic c. obsolete term for primitive pit. bony semicircular canals SYN: semicircular canals of bony labyrinth. Böttcher c. SYN: utriculosaccular duct. Breschet canals SYN: diploic canals. carotid c. [TA] a passage through the petrous part of the temporal bone from its inferior surface upward, medially, and forward to the apex where it opens posterior and superior to the site of the foramen lacerum. It transmits the internal carotid artery and plexuses of veins and autonomic nerves. SYN: canalis caroticus [TA] . carpal c. 1. SYN: carpal tunnel. 2. SYN: carpal groove. caudal c. the space occupied by the sacral extension of the epidural space. central c. [TA] SYN: canalis centralis medullae spinalis [TA] , syringocele (1) , tubus medullaris. SYN: central c. of spinal cord. central canals of cochlea SYN: longitudinal canals of modiolus. central c. of spinal cord [TA] the ependyma-lined lumen (cavity) of the neural tube, the cerebral part of which remains patent to form the ventricles of the brain, while the spinal part in the adult often is reduced to a solid strand of modified ependyma. SYN: central c. [TA] . central c. of the vitreous SYN: hyaloid c.. cervical c. [TA] a fusiform c. extending from the isthmus of the uterus to the opening of the uterus into the vagina. SYN: canalis cervicis uteri [TA] . cervicoaxillary c. superior opening to the axilla, bounded by clavicle anteriorly, scapula posteriorly and first rib medically. Axillary vessels and brachial plexus are transmitted. ciliary canals SYN: spaces of iridocorneal angle, under space. Civinini c. SYN: anterior canaliculus of chorda tympani. Cloquet c. SYN: hyaloid c.. cochlear c. SYN: spiral c. of cochlea. condylar c. [TA] the inconstant opening through the occipital bone posterior to the condyle on each side that transmits the occipital emissary vein. SYN: canalis condylaris [TA] , condyloid c., posterior condyloid foramen. condyloid c. SYN: condylar c.. Corti c. SYN: Corti tunnel. Cotunnius c. SYN: vestibular aqueduct. craniopharyngeal c. SYN: pituitary diverticulum. deferent c. SYN: ductus deferens. dental canals SYN: alveolar canals of maxilla. dentinal canals SYN: canaliculi dentales, under canaliculus. diploic canals [TA] channels in the diploë that accommodate the diploic veins. SYN: canales diploici [TA] , Breschet canals. Dorello c. a bony c. sometimes found at the tip of the temporal bone enclosing the abducens nerve and inferior petrosal sinus as these two structures enter the cavernous sinus. Dupuytren c. SYN: diploic vein. ear c. SYN: external acoustic meatus. endodermal c. SYN: primitive gut. endometrial c. [TA] facial c. [TA] the bony passage in the temporal bone through which the facial nerve passes; the facial c. commences at the internal auditory meatus with the horizontal part which passes at first anteriorly (medial crus of facial c.) then turns posteriorly at the geniculum of the facial c. to pass medial to the tympanic cavity (lateral crus of facial c.); finally, it turns downward (descending part of facial c.) to reach the stylomastoid foramen. SYN: canalis nervi facialis [TA] , aqueductus fallopii, fallopian aqueduct, fallopian c.. fallopian c. SYN: facial c.. femoral c. [TA] the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, which is often occupied by the intermediate deep inguinal lymph node (of Cloquet), and provides both passage for lymphatics passing from lower limb to trunk and facilitates expansion of the adjacent femoral vein, as when it enlarges during a Valsalva maneuver. SYN: canalis femoralis [TA] . Ferrein c. SYN: lacrimal pathway. Fontana c. SYN: scleral venous sinus. galactophorous canals SYN: lactiferous ducts, under duct. Gartner c. SYN: longitudinal duct of epoöphoron. gastric c. [TA] furrow formed temporarily between longitudinal rugae of the gastric mucosa along the lesser curvature during swallowing; observed radiographically and endoscopically, it is formed because of the firm attachment of the gastric mucosa to the muscular layer, which is devoid of an oblique layer at this site; said to form a passageway favored by saliva and small quantities of masticated food and other fluids as they flow from cardia to gastroduodenal junction. SYN: canalis gastricus [TA] , magenstrasse. greater palatine c. [TA] the canalis formed between the maxilla and palatine bones; it transmits the descending palatine artery and the greater palatine nerve. SYN: canalis palatinus major [TA] , pterygopalatine c.. gubernacular c. a small c. located between the permanent tooth germ and the apex of the deciduous tooth, containing remnants of dental lamina and connective tissue. c. of Guyon passageway through the transverse carpal ligament by which the ulnar nerve and artery enter the palm; it is closely related to the pisiform and the hook of the hamate. Guyon c. the superficial c. between the flexor retinaculum of the hand and flexor carpi ulnaris through which pass the ulnar nerve and vasculature between forearm and hand. gynecophoric c. a ventral groove running the length of male schistosome flukes, into which the threadlike female worm fits. Hannover c. the potential space between the ciliary zonule and the vitreous body. haversian canals vascular canals that run longitudinally in the center of haversian systems of compact osseous tissue. SYN: Leeuwenhoek canals. Hensen c. SYN: ductus reuniens. c. of Hering SYN: cholangiole. Hirschfeld canals SYN: interdental canals. Holmgrén-Golgi canals SYN: Golgi apparatus. c. of Hovius an anastomotic circle between the anterior twigs of the venae vorticosae in the eyes of some animals, but not in normal human eyes. Hoyer canals SYN: Sucquet-Hoyer canals. Huguier c. SYN: anterior canaliculus of chorda tympani. Hunter c. SYN: adductor c.. hyaloid c. [TA] a minute c. running through the vitreous from the optic disk to the lens, containing in fetal life a prolongation of the central artery of the retina, the hyaloid artery. See vitreous, hyaloid artery. SYN: canalis hyaloideus [TA] , central c. of the vitreous, Cloquet c., Stilling c.. hypoglossal c. [TA] the c. through which the hypoglossal nerve emerges from the skull. SYN: canalis hypoglossalis [TA] , anterior condyloid c. of occipital bone, anterior condyloid foramen. incisive canals [TA] several bony canals leading from the floor of the nasal cavity into the incisive fossa on the palatal surface of the maxilla; they convey the nasopalatine nerves and branches of the greater palatine arteries that anastomose with the septal branch of the sphenopalatine artery. SYN: canales incisivi [TA] , incisor canals. incisor canals SYN: incisive canals. inferior dental c. SYN: mandibular c.. infraorbital c. [TA] a c. running beneath the orbital margin of the maxilla from the infraorbital groove, in the floor of the orbit, to the infraorbital foramen; it transmits the infraorbital artery and nerve. SYN: canalis infraorbitalis [TA] . inguinal c. [TA] the obliquely directed passage through the musculoaponeurotic layers of the lower abdominal wall that transmits the spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament in the female from the pelvic cavity to the scrotum or labia majora, respectively. SYN: canalis inguinalis [TA] , abdominal c., Velpeau c.. interdental canals canals that extend vertically through alveolar bone between roots of mandibular and maxillary incisor and maxillary bicuspid teeth. SYN: Hirschfeld canals. interfacial canals intercellular spaces occurring in relation to intercellular attachments by desmosomes in stratified squamous epithelium, generally resulting from shrinkage of an artifact of fixation. Jacobson c. SYN: tympanic canaliculus. Kürsteiner canals a fetal complex of vesicular, canalicular, and glandlike structures derived from parathyroid, thymus, or thymic cord; they are rudimentary and functionless unless persistent postnatally, when they may occur as cystic structures in the vicinity of parathyroid III and thymus III. Kürsteiner described three types, type II canals being associated with thyroaplasia. lateral c. SYN: accessory c.. lateral semicircular canals semicircular canals of bony labyrinth. Laurer c. a tube originating on the surface of the ootype of trematodes, directed dorsally to or near the surface; it may have originally served as a vagina or possibly as a reservoir of excess shell material. Lauth c. SYN: scleral venous sinus. Leeuwenhoek canals SYN: haversian canals. lesser palatine canals [TA] canals located in the posterior part of the palatine bone. SYN: canales palatini minores [TA] , canals for lesser palatine nerves. canals for lesser palatine nerves SYN: lesser palatine canals. longitudinal canals of modiolus [TA] centrally placed channels that convey vessels and nerves to the apical turns of the cochlea. SYN: canales longitudinales modioli [TA] , central canals of cochlea. Löwenberg c. SYN: cochlear duct. mandibular c. [TA] the c. within the mandible that transmits the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. Its posterior opening is the mandibular foramen. SYN: canalis mandibulae [TA] , inferior dental c.. marrow c. SYN: root c. of tooth. mental c. SYN: mental foramen. musculotubal c. [TA] a c. beginning at the anterior border of the petrous portion of the temporal bone near its junction with the squamous portion, and passing to the tympanic cavity; it is divided by the cochleariform process into two semicanals: one for the pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube, the other for the tensor tympani muscle. SYN: canalis musculotubarius [TA] . nasolacrimal c. [TA] the bony c. formed by the maxilla, lacrimal bone, and inferior concha that transmits the nasolacrimal duct from the orbit to the inferior meatus of the nose. SYN: canalis nasolacrimalis [TA] . neural c. the c. within the embryonic neural tube; the primordium of the central c.. neurenteric c. a transitory communication between the neural tube, notochordal c., and gut endoderm in vertebrate embryos. notochordal c. SYN: archenteric c.. c. of Nuck processus vaginalis of peritoneum. nutrient c. [TA] a c. in the shaft of a long bone or in other locations in irregular bones through which the nutrient artery enters a bone. SYN: canalis nutricius [TA] . obturator c. [TA] the opening in the superior part of the obturator membrane through which the obturator nerve and vessels pass from the pelvic cavity into the thigh. SYN: canalis obturatorius [TA] . optic c. [TA] the short c. through the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone at the apex of the orbit that gives passage to the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery. SYN: canalis opticus [TA] , foramen opticum, optic foramen. palatovaginal c. [TA] on the undersurface of the vaginal process of the sphenoid bone, a furrow that is converted into a c. by the sphenoidal process of the palatine bone; it transmits the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary artery and the pharyngeal nerve from the pterygopalatine ganglion. SYN: canalis palatovaginalis, pharyngeal c.. parturient c. SYN: birth c.. pelvic c. the passage from the superior to the inferior aperture of the pelvis. pericardioperitoneal c. the portion of the embryonic celom that joins the pericardial cavity to the peritoneal cavity, developing into the pleural cavities. SYN: pleural c.. persistent atrioventricular c. a condition that is caused when the atrial and ventricular septa fail to meet, as in normal development, resulting in a low atrial and high ventricular septal defect or a common atrioventricular c.. SYN: endocardial cushion defect. Petit canals SYN: zonular spaces, under space. pharyngeal c. SYN: palatovaginal c.. c. for pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube [TA] the inferior division of the musculotubal c. that forms the bony part of the pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube. SYN: semicanalis tubae auditivae [TA] , semicanal of auditory tube, semicanalis t′ubae audito′riae. pleural c. SYN: pericardioperitoneal c.. pleuropericardial canals in the embryo, spaces or channels, one on each side, connecting the pericardial and pleural cavities. pleuroperitoneal c. the communication between the embryonic pleural and peritoneal cavities. portal canals connective tissue spaces in the substance of the liver that are occupied by preterminal ramifications of the bile ducts, portal vein, and hepatic artery, as well as nerves and lymphatics. posterior semicircular canals semicircular canals of bony labyrinth. pterygoid c. [TA] an opening through the base of the medial pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone through which pass the artery, vein, and nerve of the pterygoid c.. SYN: canalis pterygoideus [TA] , vidian c.. pterygopalatine c. SYN: greater palatine c.. pudendal c. [TA] the space within the obturator internus fascia lining the lateral wall of the ischioanal (ischiorectal) fossa that transmits the pudendal vessels and internal pudendal nerves. SYN: canalis pudendalis [TA] , Alcock c.. pulp c. SYN: root c. of tooth. pyloric c. [TA] the aboral segment (about 2–3 cm long) of the stomach; it succeeds the antrum and ends at the gastroduodenal junction. SYN: canalis pyloricus [TA] . Rivinus canals major sublingual duct, minor sublingual ducts, under duct. root c. of tooth [TA] the chamber of the dental pulp lying within the root portion of a tooth. SYN: canalis radicis dentis [TA] , marrow c., pulp c.. Rosenthal c. SYN: spiral c. of cochlea. sacral c. [TA] the continuation of the vertebral c. in the sacrum. SYN: canalis sacralis [TA] . Santorini c. SYN: accessory pancreatic duct. canals of Scarpa separate canals for the nasopalatine nerves and vessels. These canals normally fuse to form the incisive c.. Schlemm c. SYN: scleral venous sinus. semicircular canals semicircular canals of bony labyrinth. semicircular canals of bony labyrinth [TA] the organ of balance; the three bony tubes in the labyrinth of the ear within which the membranous semicircular ducts are located; they lie in planes at right angles to each other and are known as anterior semicircular c., posterior semicircular c., and lateral semicircular c.. SYN: bony semicircular canals, canales semicircularis ossei. small c. of chorda tympani SYN: posterior canaliculus of chorda tympani. Sondermann c. a blind outpouching of Schlemm c., extending toward, but not communicating with, the anterior chamber of the eye. spinal c. SYN: vertebral c.. spiral c. of cochlea [TA] the winding tube of the bony labyrinth that makes two and a half turns about the modiolus of the cochlea; it is divided incompletely into two compartments by a winding shelf of bone, the bony spiral lamina. SYN: canalis spiralis cochleae [TA] , cochlear c., Rosenthal c.. spiral c. of modiolus [TA] the space in the modiolus in which the spiral ganglion of the cochlear nerve lies. SYN: canalis spiralis modioli [TA] . Stilling c. SYN: hyaloid c.. subsartorial c. SYN: adductor c.. Sucquet canals SYN: Sucquet-Hoyer canals. Sucquet-Hoyer canals arteriovenular anastomoses controlling blood flow in the glomus bodies in the digits. SYN: Hoyer anastomoses, Hoyer canals, Sucquet anastomoses, Sucquet canals, Sucquet-Hoyer anastomoses. tarsal c. SYN: tarsal sinus. temporal c. a c. in the zygomatic bone transmitting the zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nerves and vessels. c. for tensor tympani muscle [TA] semicanal of the tensor muscle of the tympanum; the superior division of the musculotubal c. containing the tensor tympani muscle. SYN: semicanalis musculi tensoris tympani [TA] , semicanal for tensor tympani muscle. Theile c. SYN: transverse pericardial sinus. tubotympanic c. tubotympanic recess. tympanic c. SYN: tympanic canaliculus. uniting c. SYN: ductus reuniens. uterovaginal c. a median tubular structure produced in the embryo from the fusion of the caudal parts of the paramesonephric ducts. van Horne c. SYN: thoracic duct. Velpeau c. SYN: inguinal c.. vertebral c. [TA] the c. that contains the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and related structures. It is formed by the vertebral foramina of successive vertebrae of the articulated vertebral column. SYN: canalis vertebralis [TA] , spinal c., tubus vertebralis. vesicourethral c. the cranial portion of the primitive urogenital sinus from which develop the urinary bladder and part of the urethra. vestibular c. SYN: scala vestibuli. vidian c. SYN: pterygoid c.. Volkmann canals vascular canals in compact bone that, unlike those of the haversian system, are not surrounded by concentric lamellae of bone; they run for the most part transversely, perforating the lamellae of the haversian system, and communicate with the canals of that system. vomerine c. SYN: vomerovaginal c.. vomerobasilar c. SYN: vomerorostral c.. vomerorostral c. [TA] a small c. between the superior border of the vomer and the rostrum of the sphenoidal bone. SYN: canalis vomerorostralis [TA] , vomerobasilar c.. vomerovaginal c. [TA] an opening between the vaginal process of the sphenoid and the ala of the vomer on either side. It conveys a branch of the sphenopalatine artery. SYN: canalis vomerovaginalis [TA] , basipharyngeal c., vomerine c.. Walther canals SYN: minor sublingual ducts, under duct. Wirsung c. SYN: pancreatic duct.

canales (ka-na′lez)
Plural of canalis.

canalicular (kan-a-lik′u-lar)
Relating to a canaliculus. [L. canaliculus, small channel, dim. fr. canalis, canal, + suffix -ar, pertaining to]

canaliculi (kan-a-lik′u-li)
Plural of canaliculus.

canaliculitis (kan′a-lik-u-li′tis)
Inflammation of the lacrimal canaliculus. [canaliculus + G. -itis, inflammation]

canaliculization (kan-a-lik′u-li-za′shun)
The formation of canaliculi, or small canals, in any tissue.

canaliculus, pl .canaliculi (kan-a-lik′u-lus, -li) [TA]
A small canal or channel. SEE ALSO: iter. [L. dim. fr. canalis, canal] anterior c. of chorda tympani a canal in the petrotympanic or glaserian fissure, near its posterior edge, through which the chorda tympani nerve issues from the skull. SYN: Civinini canal, Huguier canal, iter chordae anterius. auricular c. SYN: mastoid c.. biliary c. one of the intercellular channels, about 1 μm or less in diameter, that occur between liver cells forming the first portion of the bile system. SYN: bile capillary. bone c. the c. interconnecting bone lacunae with one another or with a haversian canal; contains the interconnecting cytoplasmic processes of osteocytes. caroticotympanic canaliculi [TA] small openings within the carotid canal that afford passage to the tympanic cavity of branches of the internal carotid artery and carotid sympathetic plexus. SYN: canaliculi caroticotympanici [TA] . canaliculi caroticotympanici [TA] SYN: caroticotympanic canaliculi. c. chordae tympani [TA] SYN: posterior c. of chorda tympani. c. of chorda tympani SYN: posterior c. of chorda tympani. c. cochleae [TA] SYN: cochlear c.. cochlear c. [TA] a minute canal in the temporal bone that passes from the cochlea inferiorly to open in front of the medial side of the jugular fossa. It contains the perilymphatic duct. SYN: c. cochleae [TA] . canaliculi dentales minute, wavy, branching tubes or canals in the dentin; they contain the long cytoplasmic processes of odontoblasts and extend radially from the pulp to the dentoenamel junction. SYN: dental tubules, dentinal canals, dentinal tubules, tubuli dentales. c. innominatus SYN: foramen petrosum. intercellular c. one of the fine channels between adjoining secretory cells, such as those between serous cells in salivary glands. intracellular c. a fine canal formed by invagination of the cell membrane into the cytoplasm of a cell, such as those of the parietal cells of the stomach. lacrimal c. [TA] a curved canal beginning at the lacrimal punctum in the margin of each eyelid near the medial commissure and running transversely medially to empty with its fellow into the lacrimal sac. SYN: c. lacrimalis [TA] . c. lacrimalis [TA] SYN: lacrimal c.. mastoid c. [TA] the canal that extends from the jugular fossa laterally through the mastoid process. It transmits the auricular branch of the vagus. SYN: c. mastoideus [TA] , auricular c.. c. mastoideus [TA] SYN: mastoid c.. posterior c. of chorda tympani a canal leading from the facial canal to the tympanic cavity through which the chorda tympani nerve enters this cavity. SYN: c. chordae tympani [TA] , c. of chorda tympani, iter chordae posterius, small canal of chorda tympani. c. reuniens SYN: ductus reuniens. secretory c. intercellular c., intracellular c.. Thiersch canaliculi minute channels in newly formed reparative tissue, permitting the circulation of nutritive fluids, precursors of new vascularization. tympanic c. [TA] a minute canal passing from the inferior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone between the jugular fossa and carotid canal to the floor of the tympanic cavity. Located in the wedge of bone separating the jugular canal and carotid canal, it transmits the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. SYN: c. tympanicus [TA] , Jacobson canal, tympanic canal. c. tympanicus [TA] SYN: tympanic c..


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