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Medical Dictionary


canalis, pl .canales (ka-na′lis, -lez) [TA]
SYN: canal. [L.] c. adductorius [TA] SYN: adductor canal. canales alveolares corporis maxillae [TA] SYN: alveolar canals of maxilla, under canal. c. analis [TA] SYN: anal canal. c. caroticus [TA] SYN: carotid canal. c. carpi [TA] SYN: carpal tunnel. c. centralis medullae spinalis [TA] SYN: central canal. c. cervicis uteri [TA] SYN: cervical canal. c. condylaris [TA] SYN: condylar canal. canales diploici [TA] SYN: diploic canals, under canal. c. femoralis [TA] SYN: femoral canal. c. gastricus [TA] SYN: gastric canal. c. hyaloideus [TA] SYN: hyaloid canal. c. hypoglossalis [TA] SYN: hypoglossal canal. canales incisivi [TA] SYN: incisive canals, under canal. c. infraorbitalis [TA] SYN: infraorbital canal. c. inguinalis [TA] SYN: inguinal canal. canales longitudinales modioli [TA] SYN: longitudinal canals of modiolus, under canal. c. mandibulae [TA] SYN: mandibular canal. c. musculotubarius [TA] SYN: musculotubal canal. c. nasolacrimalis [TA] SYN: nasolacrimal canal. c. nervi facialis [TA] SYN: facial canal. c. nervi petrosi superficialis minoris SYN: hiatus for lesser petrosal nerve. c. nutricius [TA] SYN: nutrient canal. c. obturatorius [TA] SYN: obturator canal. c. opticus [TA] SYN: optic canal. canales palatini minores [TA] SYN: lesser palatine canals, under canal. c. palatinus major [TA] SYN: greater palatine canal. c. palatovaginalis SYN: palatovaginal canal. c. pterygoideus [TA] SYN: pterygoid canal. c. pudendalis [TA] SYN: pudendal canal. c. pyloricus [TA] SYN: pyloric canal. c. radicis dentis [TA] SYN: root canal of tooth. c. reuniens SYN: ductus reuniens. c. sacralis [TA] SYN: sacral canal. canales semicircularis anterior anterior semicurcular canal. See semicircular canals of bony labyrinth, under canal. canales semicircularis lateralis lateral semicircular canal. See semicircular canals of bony labyrinth, under canal. canales semicircularis ossei SYN: semicircular canals of bony labyrinth, under canal. canales semicircularis posterior posterior semicircular canal. See semicircular canals of bony labyrinth, under canal. c. spiralis cochleae [TA] SYN: spiral canal of cochlea. c. spiralis modioli [TA] SYN: spiral canal of modiolus. c. umbilicalis SYN: umbilical ring. c. vertebralis [TA] SYN: vertebral canal. c. vomerorostralis [TA] SYN: vomerorostral canal. c. vomerovaginalis [TA] SYN: vomerovaginal canal.

canalization (kan-al-i-za′shun)
The formation of canals or channels in a tissue.

Myrtelle M., U.S. pathologist, 1879–1953. See C. disease, C. sclerosis, C.-van Bogaert-Bertrand disease.

canavanase (kan-av′a-nas)
SYN: arginase.

canavanine (kan-a-van′in)
2-Amino-4-guanidinohydroxybutyric acid;an analog of arginine found in certain legumes; used in studies of arginine-dependent systems; it is also a potent growht inhibitor. [Canavalia + -ine]

cancellated (kan′se-la-ted)
SYN: cancellous. [L. cancello, to make a lattice work]

cancellous (kan′se-lus)
Denoting bone that has a latticelike or spongy structure. SYN: cancellated.

cancellus, pl .cancelli (kan-sel′us, -li)
A latticelike structure, as in spongy bone. [L. a grating, lattice]

cancer (CA) (kan′ser)
General term frequently used to indicate any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, may metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to cause death of the patient unless adequately treated; especially, any such carcinoma or sarcoma, but, in ordinary usage, especially the former. [L. a crab, a c.] betel c. carcinoma of the mucous membrane of the cheek, observed in certain East Indian natives, probably as a result of irritation from chewing a preparation of betel nut and lime rolled within a betel leaf. SYN: buyo cheek c.. buyo cheek c. SYN: betel c.. [Philippine buyo, betel] chimney sweep's c. a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum, occurring as an occupational disease in chimney sweeps. The first reported form of occupational c. (by Sir Percival Pott). colloid c. SYN: mucinous carcinoma. conjugal c. c. à deux occurring in husband and wife. c. à deux carcinomas occurring at approximately the same time, or in fairly close succession, in two persons who live together. [Fr. deux, two] c. en cuirasse (on-kwe-rahs′, Fr. breastplate) a carcinoma that involves a considerable portion of the skin of one or both sides of the thorax. [Fr. breastplate] epidermoid c. SYN: epidermoid carcinoma. epithelial c. any malignant neoplasm originating from epithelium, i.e., a carcinoma. familial c. c. aggregating among blood relatives; rarely the mode of inheritance is clearly mendelian, either dominant, as in retinoblastoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, neurofibromatosis, and intestinal polyposis, or recessive, as in xeroderma pigmentosum. SEE ALSO: c. family. glandular c. SYN: adenocarcinoma. hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal c. an autosomal dominant predisposition to c. of the colon and rectum. kang c., kangri c. a carcinoma of the skin of the thigh or abdomen in certain Indian or Chinese workers; thought to result from irritation by heat from a hot brick oven (kang) or fire basket (kangri). SYN: kangri burn carcinoma. mouse c. any of various types of malignant neoplasms that occur naturally in mice, especially in certain inbred “c. strains” used for research studies. mule-spinner's c. carcinoma of the scrotum or adjacent skin exposed to oil, observed in some workers in cotton-spinning mills. paraffin c. carcinoma of the skin occurring as an occupational disease in paraffin workers. pipe-smoker's c. squamous cell carcinoma of the lips occurring in pipe smokers. pitch-worker's c. carcinoma of the skin of the face or neck, arms and hands, or the scrotum, resulting from exposure to carcinogens in pitch, which occurs naturally as asphalt, or as a residue in the distillation of tar. scar c. SYN: scar carcinoma. scar c. of the lungs a pulmonary c. intimately related to a localized area of parenchymal fibrosis. stump c. carcinoma of the stomach developing after gastroenterostomy or gastric resection for benign disease. telangiectatic c. a c. with numerous dilated capillaries and “lakes” of blood within relatively large endothelium-lined channels.

cancerophobia (kan′ser-o-fo′be-a)
A morbid fear of acquiring a malignant growth. SYN: carcinophobia. [cancer + G. phobos, fear]

cancerous (kan′ser-us)
Relating to or pertaining to a malignant neoplasm, or being afflicted with such a process.

cancra (kang′kra)
Plural of cancrum.

cancriform (kang′kri-form)
Resembling cancer. SYN: cancroid (1) .

cancroid (kang′kroyd)
1. SYN: cancriform. 2. Obsolete term for a malignant neoplasm that manifests a lesser degree of malignancy than that frequently observed with carcinoma or sarcoma. [cancer + G. eidos, resemblance]

cancrum, pl .cancra (kang′krum, -kra)
A gangrenous, ulcerative, inflammatory lesion. [Mod. L., fr. L. cancer, crab] c. nasi gangrenous, necrotizing, and ulcerative rhinitis, especially in children. c. oris SYN: noma.

candela (cd) (kan′de-la)
The SI unit of luminous intensity, 1 lumen per m2; the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 × 1012 Hz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 W per steradian (solid angle). SYN: candle. [L.]

candicans (kan′di-kanz)
One of the corpora albicantia. [L. candico, pres. p. -ans, to be whitish]

candicidin (kan-di-si′din)
A fungistatic and fungicidal polyene antibiotic agent derived from a soil actinomycete similar to Streptomyces griseus; used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

Candida (kan′did-a)
A genus of yeastlike fungi commonly found in nature; a few species are isolated from the skin, feces, and vaginal and pharyngeal tissue, but the gastrointestinal tract is the source of the single most important species, C. albicans. [L. candidus, dazzling white] C. albicans a fungal species ordinarily a part of humans' normal gastrointestinal flora, but which becomes pathogenic when there is a disturbance in the balance of flora or in an impairment of the host defenses from other causes; resulting disease states may vary from limited to generalized cutaneous or mucocutaneous infections, to severe and fatal systemic disease including endocarditis, septicemia, and meningitis. SYN: thrush fungus. C. glabrata a fungal species that is a cause of human candidiasis; formerly classified as Torulopsis glabrata. C. parapsilosis a species of limited pathogenicity that may cause endocarditis, paronychia, and otitis externa. C. tropicalis a species occasionally associated with candidiasis.

candidemia (kan-di-de′me-a)
Presence of cells of Candida species in the peripheral blood. [Candida + G. haima, blood]

candidiasis (kan-di-di′a-sis)
Infection with, or disease caused by, Candida, especially C. albicans. This disease usually results from debilitation (as in immunosuppression and especially AIDS), physiologic change, prolonged administration of antibiotics, and iatrogenic and barrier breakage. SYN: candidosis, moniliasis.

candidosis (kan-di-do′sis)
SYN: candidiasis.

candle (kan′dl)
SYN: candela.

candle-meter (kan′dl-me′ter)
SYN: lux.

candle-power (kan′dl-pow′er)
SYN: luminous intensity.

Canidae (kan′i-de)
A family of the Carnivora including the dogs, coyotes, wolves, and foxes. [L. canis, dog]

canine (ka′nin)
1. Relating to a dog. 2. Relating to the c. teeth. 3. SYN: c. tooth. 4. Referring to the cuspid tooth. [L. caninus]

caniniform (ka-ni′ni-form)
Resembling a canine tooth.

canister (kan′is-ter)
A box or container; in anesthesiology, the container for carbon dioxide absorbent.

canities (ka-nish′e-ez)
Graying of hair. SEE ALSO: poliosis. [L., fr. canus, hoary, gray] c. poliosis SYN: ectopic eyelash. c. circumscripta SYN: piebald eyelash. rapid c. whitening of hair overnight or over a few days; in the latter case, may be seen in alopecia areata, when surviving pigmented hairs are preferentially shed from gray hair.

canker (kang′ker)
1. In cats and dogs, acute inflammation of the external ear and auditory canal. See aphtha. 2. In the horse, a process similar to but more advanced than thrush; the horny frog is generally underrun with a whitish, cheeselike exudate, and the entire sole and even the wall of the hoof may be undermined. [L. cancer, crab, malignant growth] water c. SYN: noma.

cannabidiol (kan-a-bi-di′ol)
A constituent of Cannabis, related to cannabinol.

cannabinoids (ka-nab′i-noydz)
Organic substances present in Cannabis sativa, having a variety of pharmacologic properties.

cannabinol (ka-nab′i-nol)
A constituent of the resinous exudate of the pistillate flowers of Cannabis sativa; it has no psychotomimetic action as do the tetrahydro derivatives isolated from marijuana.

cannabis (kan′a-bis)
The dried flowering tops of the pistillate plants of C. sativa (family Moraceae) containing isomeric tetrahydrocannabinols, cannabinol, and cannabidiol. Preparations of c. are smoked or ingested by members of various cultures and subcultures to induce psychotomimetic effects such as euphoria, hallucinations, drowsiness, and other mental changes. C. was formerly used as a sedative and analgesic; now available for restricted use in management of iatrogenic anorexia, especially that associated with oncologic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Known by many colloquial or slang terms such as marihuana; marijuana; pot; grass; bhang; charas; ganja; hashish. [L., fr. G. kannabis, hemp]

cannabism (kan′a-bizm)
Poisoning by preparations of cannabis.

Stanislao, Italian chemist, 1826–1910. See C. reaction.

Walter B., U.S. physiologist, 1871–1945. See C. ring, C. theory, C.-Bard theory, Bernard-C. homeostasis.

cannula (kan′u-la)
A tube that can be inserted into a cavity, usually by means of a trocar filling its lumen; after insertion of the c., the trocar is withdrawn and the c. remains as a channel for the transport of fluid. [L. dim. of canna, reed] Hasson c. a laparoscopic instrument for open (rather than blind needle insufflation) placement of the initial port. The Hasson has a blunt-tipped obturator instead of a sharp trocar and a balloon on the distal portion of the sheath to hold it in place. SYN: laparoscopic c.. Karman c. a flexible plastic c. used in performing early (menstrual extraction) abortion. laparoscopic c. SYN: Hasson c.. perfusion c. 1. a double-barreled c. used for irrigation of a cavity, the wash fluid passing into the cavity through one tube and out through the other. 2. c. used to perfuse an organ, i.e., used to flush a donor organ in preparation for transplantation. washout c. a c. that can be irrigated without removal from the artery.

cannulation, cannulization (kan-u-la′shun, -u-li-za′shun)
Insertion of a cannula.

Cantelli sign
See under sign.

canthal (kan′thal)
Relating to a canthus.

cantharidal (kan-thar′i-dal)
Relating to or containing cantharides.

cantharidate (kan-thar′i-dat)
A salt of cantharidic acid.

cantharides (kan-thar′i-dez)
Plural of cantharis.

cantharidic acid (kan-thar′i-dik)
An acid, derived from cantharis, that forms salts (cantharidates) with alkalis.

cantharidin (kan-thar′i-din)
The active principle of cantharis; the anhydride of cantharic acid. SYN: cantharis camphor.

cantharis, gen. cantharidis, pl .cantharides (kan′thar-is, kan-thar′i-dis, -dez)
A dried beetle, Lytta (C.) vesicatoria, used as a counterirritant and vesicant. SYN: Russian fly, Spanish fly. [L., fr. G. kantharis, a beetle]

canthectomy (kan-thek′to-me)
Excision of a palpebral canthus. [G. kanthos, canthus, + ektome, excision]

canthi (kan′thi)
Plural of canthus.

canthitis (kan-thi′tis)
Inflammation of a canthus.

cantholysis (kan-thol′i-sis)
SYN: canthoplasty (1) . [G. kanthos, canthus, + lysis, loosening]

canthoplasty (kan′tho-plas-te)
1. An operation for lengthening the palpebral fissure by incision through the lateral canthus. SYN: cantholysis. 2. An operation for restoration of the canthus. [G. kanthos, canthus, + plasso, to form]

canthorrhaphy (kan-thor′a-fe)
Suture of the eyelids at either canthus. [G. kanthos, canthus, + rhaphe, suture]

canthotomy (kan-thot′o-me)
Slitting of the canthus. [G. kanthos, canthus, + tome, incision]

canthus, pl .canthi (kan′thus, -thi)
The angle of the eye. [G. kanthos, corner of the eye] external c. SYN: lateral angle of eye. internal c. SYN: medial angle of eye. lateral c. SYN: lateral angle of eye. medial c. SYN: medial angle of eye.

Meyer O., U.S. physician, *1907. See C. tube.

Abbreviation for cathodal opening contraction.

Abbreviation for catabolite (gene) activator protein.

cap (kap)
1. Any anatomic structure that resembles a c. or cover. 2. A protective covering for an incomplete tooth. 3. Colloquialism for restoration of the coronal part of a natural tooth by means of an artificial crown. 4. The nucleotide structure found at the 5′-terminus of many eukaryotic messenger RNAs, consisting of a 7-methylguanosine connected, via its 5′-hydroxyl group, by a triphosphate group to the 5′-hydroxyl group of the first nucleoside encoded by the DNA; usually symbolized as m7G5′ppp5′N, where N is nucleoside number 1 in the transcribed mRNA and is often itself methylated; the c. is added posttranscriptionally. acrosomal c. a collapsed membranous vesicle that covers the anterior part of the nucleus of the spermatozoon, derived from the acrosomal granule; the carbohydrate-rich substance of the c. is associated with hydrolytic enzymes that aid in sperm penetration of the zona pellucida of the ovum. SYN: head c.. apical c. a curved shadow at the apex of one or both hemithoraces on chest x-ray; caused by pleural and pulmonary fibrosis or, on the left, by blood from a traumatic rupture of the aorta. cervical c. a contraceptive diaphragm that fits over the cervix uteri. chin c. an extraoral appliance designed to exert an upward and backward force on the mandible by applying pressure to the chin, thereby preventing forward growth. cradle c. colloquialism for seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp of the newborn, a red, waxy scaling seen in the third to fourth week. dental caps deciduous cheek teeth in the horse which remain attached to erupting permanent teeth. duodenal c. the first portion of the duodenum, as seen in a radiograph or by fluoroscopy. SYN: duodenal bulb. enamel c. the enamel covering the crown of a tooth. head c. SYN: acrosomal c.. metanephric c. the concentrated mass of mesodermal cells about the metanephric bud in a young embryo; the cells of the c. form the uriniferous tubules of the permanent kidney. SYN: metanephric blastema. phrygian c. in cholecystography, an incomplete septum or a fold in the gallbladder, the shape of which suggests the liberty c. of the French Revolution. pyloric c. obsolete term for duodenal c..


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