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Medical Dictionary


cardiopathy (kar-de-op′a-the)
Any disease of the heart. [cardio- + G. pathos, disease]

cardiophobia (kar′de-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of heart disease.

cardiophone (kar′de-o-fon)
A stethoscope specially modified to aid in listening to the sounds of the heart. [cardio- + G. phone, sound]

cardiophony (kar′de-of′o-ne)
A rarely used term for phonocardiography (1).

cardiophrenia (kar′de-o-fre′ne-a)
SYN: phrenocardia.

cardioplasty (kar′de-o-plas-te)
An operation on the cardia of the stomach. SYN: esophagogastroplasty. [cardio- (2) + G. plastos, formed]

cardioplegia (kar′de-o-ple′je-a)
1. Paralysis of the heart. 2. An elective stopping of cardiac activity temporarily by injection of chemicals, selective hypothermia, or electrical stimuli. [cardio- + G. plege, stroke] antegrade c. c. effected by delivery of solutions through the coronary arteries. retrograde c. c. effected by delivery of solutions via the coronary veins.

cardioplegic (kar-de-o-ple′jik)
Relating to cardioplegia.

cardioptosia (kar′de-op-to′se-a)
A condition in which the heart is unduly movable and displaced downward, as distinguished from bathycardia. SEE ALSO: cor mobile, cor pendulum. SYN: drop heart. [cardio- + G. ptosis, a falling]

cardiopulmonary (kar′de-o-pul′mo-nar-e)
Relating to the heart and lungs. SYN: pneumocardial.

cardiopyloric (kar′de-o-pi-lor′ik, -pi-lor′ik)
Relating to the cardiac and pyloric extremities of the stomach.

cardiorenal (kar′de-o-re′nal)
Relating to the heart and the kidney. SYN: cardionephric, nephrocardiac, renicardiac.

cardiorrhaphy (kar-de-or′a-fe)
Suture of the heart wall. [cardio- + G. rhaphe, suture]

cardiorrhexis (kar-de-o-rek′sis)
Rupture of the heart wall. [cardio- + G. rhexis, rupture]

cardioscope (kar′de-o-skop)
An instrument for inspecting the interior of the living heart. [cardio- + G. skopeo, to view]

cardioselective (kar′de-o-se-lek′tiv)
Denoting or having the properties of cardioselectivity.

cardioselectivity (kar′de-o-se-lek-tiv′i-te)
The relatively predominant cardiovascular pharmacologic effect of a drug with multipharmacologic effects; used especially when describing beta-blocking agents.

cardiospasm (kar′de-o-spazm)
SYN: esophageal achalasia.

cardiosphygmograph (kar′de-o-sfig′mo-graf)
An instrument for recording graphically the movements of the heart and the radial pulse. [cardio- + G. sphygmos, pulse, + grapho, to write]

cardiotachometer (kar′de-o-ta-kom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the heart rate. [cardio- + G. tachos, rapidity, + metron, measure]

cardiothrombus (kar′de-o-throm′bus)
A clot of blood within one of the heart's chambers. SYN: cardiohemothrombus.

cardiothyrotoxicosis (kar′de-o-thi-ro-tok-si-ko′sis)
Hyperthyroidism with cardiac complications.

cardiotomy (kar-de-ot′o-me)
1. Incision of a heart wall. 2. Incision of the cardiac part of the stomach. [cardio- + G. tome, incision]

cardiotonic (kar′de-o-ton′ik)
Exerting a favorable, so-called tonic effect upon the action of the heart; usually intended to indicate increased force of contraction. [cardio- + G. tonos, tension]

cardiotoxic (kar′de-o-tok′sik)
Having a deleterious effect upon the action of the heart, due to poisoning of the cardiac muscle or of its conducting system. [cardio- + G. toxikon, poison]

cardiotoxin (kar′de-o-tok′sin)
1. A poisonous glycoside with specific cardiac effects. For example, causes irreversible depolarization of cell membranes. 2. Specifically, one of the toxic principles from cobra venom. 3. Any substance that can cause heart damage with toxic doses.

cardiovalvulitis (kar′de-o-val-vu-li′tis)
Inflammation of the heart valves.

cardiovascular (CV) (kar′de-o-vas′ku-lar) [TA]
Relating to the heart and the blood vessels or the circulation. SYN: cardiovasculare [TA] , vasculocardiac. [cardio- + L. vasculum, vessel]

cardiovasculare [TA]
SYN: cardiovascular.

cardiovasculorenal (kar′de-o-vas′ku-lo-re′nal)
Relating to the heart, arteries, and kidneys, especially as to function or disease.

cardioversion (kar′de-o-ver′zhun)
Restoration of the heart's rhythm to normal by electrical countershock or by medications (chemical c.). [cardio- + conversion]

cardiovert (car′de-o-vert)
The act of cardioversion.

cardioverter (kar′de-o-ver′ter)
A machine used to perform cardioversion.

Cardiovirus (kar′de-o-vi-rus)
A genus of RNA viruses in the family Picornaviridae that are rarely associated with human disease and are recovered frequently from rodents, i.e., Columbia S.K. virus, mengo virus.

carditis (kar-di′tis)
Inflammation of the heart. rheumatic c. pancarditis occurring in rheumatic fever, characterized by formation of Aschoff bodies in the cardiac interstitial tissue; may be associated with acute cardiac failure, endocarditis with small fibrin vegetations on the margins of closure of valve cusps (especially the mitral), and fibrinous pericarditis; it is frequently followed by scarring of the valves.

care (kar)
In medicine and public health, a general term for the application of knowledge to the benefit of a community or individual. comprehensive medical c. a concept that includes not only the traditional c. of the acutely or chronically ill patient, but also the prevention and early detection of disease and the rehabilitation of the disabled. end-of-life c. multidimensional and multidisciplinary physical, emotional, and spiritual c. of the patient with terminal illness, including support of family and caregivers.End-of-life c. has received increasing attention in recent years. The pioneer studies of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross on death and dying, begun in the 1960s, have afforded valuable insights into the evolving emotions, experiences, and needs of the dying person. Health professionals have formally recognized the importance of rendering humane and competent c. at the end of life in ways that preserve the dignity and autonomy of the patient. Physicians, particularly oncologists, who treat patients with terminal illness have focused on the need to distinguish clearly between aggressive and palliative forms of treatment and to establish guidelines for the c. of patients for whom further cure-oriented treatment will be of no benefit. In particular, they have recognized the importance of providing adequate pain relief to persons with advanced cancer. Increased attention has also been given to the control of nausea and dyspnea, which often occur in terminal illness. Studies have shown that pain relief in terminal patients is often inadequate because physicians fear to induce narcotic addiction or to be accused of hastening death. Wider use of opioid analgesics and development of patient-controlled analgesia and anesthesia systems have improved control of pain in terminal cancer and AIDS. Professional nurses have embraced the obligation to provide relief of suffering, comfort, companionship, and, when possible, a death that is congruent with the dying person's wishes. The hospice movement has established programs and facilities within the organized health c. system that focus on the special needs of dying persons for comfort and c. rather than efforts at cure. These programs include support of caregivers and family members during and after the patient's final illness. End-of-life c. emphasizes the importance of frank, timely, supportive discussion of such matters as preferences for life-extending c., including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, before such measures become necessary. Legislatures have sought to preserve the dignity and independence of persons nearing the end of life by allowing them to enact advance directives for their c. in the event that they become incompetent or comatose. The integrity of the relationship between patients and health professionals has been threatened by growing social and legal toleration of physician-assisted suicide. The American Medical Association and the American Nurses Association have issued official position statements opposing assisted suicide. See Also advance directive; physician-assisted suicide. health c. services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring, or restoring health. intensive c. management and c. of critically ill patients. SEE ALSO: intensive c. unit. managed c. a contractual arrangement whereby a third-party payer (e.g., insurance company, government agency, or corporation) mediates between physicians and patients, negotiating fees for service and overseeing the types of treatment given. SEE ALSO: health maintenance organization.Managed c. has largely replaced traditional medical indemnity insurance plans, under which payment is automatic and oversight procedures are minimal. Under managed c., the third-party payer controls specialty referrals, chiefly by appointing primary c. physicians as “gatekeepers”; restricts the scope of covered services (particularly diagnostic procedures, choice of drugs prescribed, and length of hospital stay) for each diagnosis; and requires precertification review before hospital admission and a second opinion before elective surgery. Standards of c. are regulated by practice guidelines, which may be set forth in oversimplified algorithms featuring binary (yes/no) choices. Prescribing alternatives are typically restricted to drugs listed in the plan's formulary. Practice guidelines, formulary choices, and other policies affecting patient c. incorporate contemporary medical knowledge and professional standards but also strongly reflect strategies for loss control and for the even distribution of actuarial risk over all beneficiaries. The plan may bargain with physicians, hospitals, diagnostic laboratories, and pharmacies for wholesale prices, or may compensate providers by capitation rather than by fees for services. Managed c. organizations typically employ cost-containment measures such as emphasis on preventive medicine, audits of medical records, intensive review of claims, and punitive action against noncompliant providers. medical c. the portion of c. under a physician's direction. primary medical c. c. of a patient by a member of the health c. system who has initial contact with the patient. secondary medical c. medical c. by a physician who acts as a consultant at the request of the primary physician. tertiary medical c. specialized consultative c., usually on referral from primary or secondary medical c. personnel, by specialists working in a center that has personnel and facilities for special investigation and treatment.

caribi (ka-re′be)
SYN: epidemic gangrenous proctitis.

carica (kar′i-ka)
SYN: papaya.

caries (kar′ez)
1. Microbial destruction or necrosis of teeth. 2. Obsolete term for tuberculosis of bones or joints. [L. dry rot] active c. microbial-induced lesions of teeth that are increasing in size. arrested dental c. carious lesions that have become inactive and stopped progressing; they may exhibit changes in color and/or consistency. buccal c. c. beginning with decay on the buccal surface of a tooth. cemental c. c. of the cementum of a tooth. compound c. 1. c. involving more than one surface of a tooth; 2. two or more carious lesions joined to form one cavity. dental c. a localized, progressively destructive disease of the teeth which starts at the external surface (usually the enamel) with the apparent dissolution of the inorganic components by organic acids that are produced in immediate proximity to the tooth by the enzymatic action of masses of microorganisms (in the bacterial plaque) on carbohydrates; the initial demineralization is followed by an enzymatic destruction of the protein matrix with subsequent cavitation and direct bacterial invasion; in the dentin, demineralization of the walls of the tubules is followed by bacterial invasion and destruction of the organic matrix. SYN: saprodontia. distal c. loss of structure on the tooth surface that is directed away from the median plane of the dental arch. fissure c. c. beginning in a fissure on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth. incipient c. beginning c. or decay. interdental c. c. between the teeth. mesial c. c. on the tooth surface that is directed toward the median plane of the dental arch. nursing bottle c. c. and tooth enamel erosion that result from permitting infants and children to go to sleep while sucking intermittently from a bottle of formula, whole milk, or fruit juice. SYN: baby bottle syndrome. occlusal c. c. starting from the occlusal surface of a tooth. pit c. a carious lesion, usually small, beginning in a pit on the labial, buccal, lingual, or occlusal surface of a tooth. pit and fissure c. c. initiated in the areas where developmental pits and fissures are located on the tooth surface. primary c. initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. proximal c. c. occurring in the proximal surface, either distal or mesial, of a tooth. radiation c. c. of the cervical regions of the teeth, incisal edges, and cusp tips secondary to xerostomia induced by radiation therapy to the head and neck. recurrent c. c. recurring in an area due to inadequate removal of the initial decay, usually beneath a restoration or new decay at a site where c. has previously occurred. root c. c. of the root surface of a tooth, usually appearing as a broad shallow defect in the area of the cemento-enamel junction. secondary c. c. of enamel beginning at the dento-enamel junction due to a rapid lateral spread of decay from the original decay. senile dental c. c. occurring in old age, usually interproximally and in the cementum. smooth surface c. c. initiated on the smooth surfaces of teeth.

carina, pl .carinae (ka-ri′na, -ri′ne)
1. In humans, a term applied or applicable to several anatomic structures forming a projecting central ridge. 2. That portion of the sternum in a bird, bat, or mole that serves as the origin of the pectoral muscles; it is not found in flightless birds and most mammals. [L. the keel of a boat] c. fornicis a ridge running along the undersurface of the fornix of the brain. c. of trachea [TA] the ridge separating the openings of the right and left main bronchi at their junction with the trachea. SYN: c. tracheae [TA] , tracheal c.. c. tracheae [TA] SYN: c. of trachea. tracheal c. SYN: c. of trachea. c. urethralis vaginae SYN: urethral c. of vagina. urethral c. of vagina the ridge formed by the lower part of the anterior column of the vaginal rugae in relation with the urethra, which parallels the vagina indenting the wall here. SYN: c. urethralis vaginae, c. vaginae. c. vaginae SYN: urethral c. of vagina.

carinate (kar′i-nat)
Shaped like a keel; relating to or resembling a carina.

Caries. [L. caries]

cariogenesis (ka′re-o-jen′e-sis)
The process of producing caries; the mechanism of caries production.

cariogenic (ka′re-o-jen′ik)
Producing caries; usually said of diets.

cariogenicity (ka′re-o-je-nis′i-te)
Potential for caries production.

cariology (ka-re-ol′o-je)
The study of dental caries and cariogenesis.

cariostatic (kar-e-o-stat′ik)
Exerting an inhibitory action upon the progress of dental caries.

carious (kar′e-oos)
Relating to or affected with caries.

carisoprodate (kar′i-so-pro′dat)
SYN: carisoprodol.

carisoprodol (kar′i-so-pro′dol)
A skeletal muscle relaxant, chemically related to meprobamate and having abuse potential. SYN: carisoprodate.

carissin (ka-ris′sin)
A glucoside obtained from Carissa ovata stolonifera of Australia; a powerful cardiac poison.

Eric, 20th century Swedish otolaryngologist. See C. tube.

carmalum (kar-mal′um)
A 1% solution of carmine in 10% alum water, used as a stain in histology.

Russell D., U.S. radiologist, 1875–1926. See C. sign.

carminate (kar′mi-nat)
A red salt of carminic acid.

carminative (kar-min′a-tiv)
1. Preventing the formation or causing the expulsion of flatus. 2. An agent that relieves flatulence. [L. carmino, pp. -atus, to card wool; special Mod. L. usage, to expel wind]

carmine (kar′min, kar′men) [C.I. 75470]
Red coloring matter used as a histology stain produced from coccinellin derived from cochineal; treatment of coccinellin with alum forms an aluminum lake of carminic acid, the essential constituent of c.. [Mediev. L. carminus, contr. fr. carmisinus, fr. Ar. qirmize, the cochineal insect] lithium c. a vital stain for marophages. Schneider c. a stain consisting of a 10% solution of c. in 45% acetic acid, used for fresh chromosome preparations.

carminic acid (kar-min′ik)
A glucoside of an anthracenequinone carboxylic acid; the essential constituent of carmine.

carminophil, carminophile, carminophilous (kar-min′o-fil, -fil, kar-mi-nof′i-lus)
Staining readily with carmine dyes. [G. phileo, to love]

Thomas Edward, U.S. oral surgeon, *1875. See C.-Batson operation.

carmustine (kar-mus′ten)
An antineoplastic agent. SYN: BCNU.

carnassial (kar-nas′e-al)
Adapted for shearing flesh; denoting those teeth designed to cut flesh. [Fr. carnassier, carnivorous, fr. L. caro, flesh]

carneous (kar′ne-us)
Fleshy. [L. carneus]

carnes (kar′nez)
Plural of caro. [L.]

J. B., 20th century U.S. physician. See C. sign.

J.A., contemporary American physician. See C. complex.

J. Aldan, U.S. pathologist, *1934. See C. complex.

carnification (kar′ni-fi-ka′shun)
A change in tissues, whereby they become fleshy, resembling muscular tissue. [L. caro (carn-), flesh, + facio, to make]


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