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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


catheterization (kath′e-ter-i-za′shun)
Passage of a catheter. clean intermittent bladder c. (CIC) a common way for patients with neurogenic bladders that do not empty normally to empty their bladders on a routine schedule.

catheterize (kath′e-ter-iz)
To pass a catheter.

catheterostat (kath′e-ter-o-stat)
A stand for holding catheters. [catheter + G. statos, standing]

cathexis (ka-thek′sis)
A conscious or unconscious attachment of psychic energy to an idea, object, or person. [G. kathexis, a holding in, retention]

cathodal (C) (kath′o-dal)
Of, pertaining to, or emanating from a cathode. SYN: cathodic.

cathode (Ca, C) (kath′od)
The negative pole of a galvanic battery or the electrode connected with it; the electrode toward which positively charged ions (cations) migrate and are reduced, and into which electrons are fed from their source (anode or generator). Cf.:anode. SYN: negative electrode. [G. kathodos, a way down, fr. kata, down, + hodos, a way]

cathodic (ka-thod′ik)
SYN: cathodal.

catholysis (kath-ol′e-sis)
Electrolysis with a cathode needle.

cation (kat′i-on)
An ion carrying a charge of positive electricity, therefore going to the negatively charged cathode. [G. kation, going down]

cation exchange
The process by which a cation in a liquid phase exchanges with another cation present as the counter ion of a negatively charged solid polymer (cation exchanger). A cation-exchange reaction in removal of the Na+ of a sodium chloride solution is RSO3−H+ + Na+ → RSO3−Na+ + H+ (R is the polymer, RSO3− is the cation exchanger); if this is combined with the anion-exchange reaction, NaCl is removed from the solution (desalting). C. may also be used chromatographically, to separate cations, and medicinally, to remove a cation; e.g., H+, from gastric contents, or Na+ and K+ in the intestine. See anion exchange.

cation exchanger
An insoluble solid (usually a polystyrene or a polysaccharide) that has negatively charged radicals attached to it ( e.g., –COO−, –SO3−), which can attract and hold cations that pass by in a moving solution if these are more attracted to the acid groups than the counter ion present.

cationic (kat-i-on′ik)
Referring to positively charged ions and their properties.

cationogen (kat-i-on′o-jen)
A substance that gives rise to positively charged ions.

catlin, catling (kat′lin, -ling)
A long, sharp-pointed, double-edged knife used in amputations.

catnep, catnip (kat′nep, kat′nip)
SYN: cataria.

catochus (kat′o-kus)
The trancelike phase of catalepsy in which the patient is conscious but cannot move or speak. [G. katoche, epilepsy (Galen), fr. katecho, to hold fast]

catoptric (ka-top′trik)
Relating to reflected light. [G. katoptron, mirror]

cauda, pl .caudae (kaw′da, kaw′de) [TA]
SYN: tail (1) . [L. a tail] c. epididymidis [TA] SYN: tail of epididymis. c. equina [TA] the bundle of spinal nerve roots arising from the lumbosacral enlargement and medullary cone and running through the lumbar cistern (subarachnoid space) within the vertebral canal below the first lumbar vertebra; it comprises the roots of all the spinal nerves below the first lumbar. [L. horse tail] c. fasciae dentatae SYN: uncus band of Giacomini. c. helicis [TA] SYN: tail of helix. c. nuclei caudati [TA] SYN: tail of caudate nucleus. c. pancreatis [TA] SYN: tail of pancreas. c. striati SYN: tail of caudate nucleus.

caudad (kaw′dad)
1. In a direction toward the tail. 2. Situated nearer the tail in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of craniad. SEE ALSO: inferior.

caudal (kaw′dal) [TA]
Pertaining to the tail. SYN: caudalis [TA] . [Mod. L. caudalis]

caudalis (kaw-da′lis) [TA]
SYN: caudal.

caudate (kaw′dat)
1. Tailed; possessing a tail. 2. SYN: c. nucleus.

caudatolenticular (kaw-da′to-len-tik′u-lar)
Relating to the caudate nucleus and lenticularis. SYN: caudolenticular.

caudatum (kaw-da′tum)
SYN: caudate nucleus.

caudocephalad (kaw-do-sef′al-ad)
In a direction from the tail toward the head.

caudolenticular (kaw′do-len-tik′u-lar)
SYN: caudatolenticular.

caul, cowl (kawl)
1. The amnion, either as a piece of membrane capping the baby's head at birth or the whole membrane when delivered unruptured with the baby. SYN: galea (4) , veil (2) , velum (2) . 2. SYN: greater omentum. [Gaelic, call, a veil]

causalgia (kaw-zal′je-a)
Persistent severe burning pain, usually following injury of a peripheral nerve (especially median and tibial) or the brachial plexus, accompanied by trophic changes. [G. kausis, burning, + algos, pain]

causality (kawz′al-i-te)
The relating of causes to the effects they produce; the pathogenesis of disease, and epidemiology, are largely concerned with c..

cause (kawz)
That which produces an effect or condition; that by which a morbid change or disease is brought about. [L. causa] constitutional c. a c. acting from within or through some systemic process or inborn error. exciting c. the direct provoking c. of a condition. SYN: procatarxis (1) . necessary c. an etiologic factor without which a result in question will not occur; the occurrence of the result is proof that the factor is operating. precipitating c. a factor that brings on the onset of manifestations of a disease process. predisposing c. anything that produces a susceptibility or disposition to a condition without actually causing it. proximate c. the immediate c. that precipitates a condition. specific c. a c. the action of which can definitely produce the condition in question. sufficient c. an etiologic factor that guarantees that a result in question will occur; non-occurrence of the result is proof that the factor is not operating.

caustic (kaws′tik)
1. Chemically exerting an effect resembling a burn. 2. An agent producing this effect. 3. Denoting a solution of a strong alkali; e.g., c. soda, NaOH. SYN: pyrotic (2) . [G. kaustikos, fr. kaio, to burn]

cauterant (kaw′ter-ant)
1. Cauterizing. 2. A cauterizing agent.

cauterization (kaw-ter-i-za′shun)
The act of cauterizing. SEE ALSO: cautery.

cauterize (kaw′ter-iz)
To apply a cautery; to burn with a cautery.

cautery (kaw′ter-e)
1. An agent or device used for scarring, burning, or cutting the skin or other tissues by means of heat, cold, electric current, ultrasound, or caustic chemicals. 2. Use of a c.. [G. kauterion, a branding iron] actual c. a c., such as electrocautery, acting directly through heat and not by chemical means. SYN: technocausis. BICAP c. a form of bipolar electrocoagulation frequently used to arrest gastrointestinal bleeding. bipolar c. electrocautery by high frequency electrical current passed through tissue from an active to a passive electrode; used for hemostasis. chemical c. SYN: chemocautery. cold c. SYN: cryocautery. electric c. SYN: electrocautery. gas c. c. by means of a measured amount of a lighted gas jet. monopolar c. electrocautery by high frequency electrical current passed from a single electrode, where the cauterization occurs, the patient's body serving as a ground.

cava (ka′va)
See inferior vena c., superior vena c..

cavagram (ka′va-gram)
SYN: cavogram.

caval (ka′val)
Relating to a vena cava.

cave (kav) [TA]
A hollow or enclosed space or cavity. See cavity, cavitas, cavernous space. SYN: cavea. trigeminal c. [TA] the cleft in the meningeal layer of dura of the middle cranial fossa near the tip of the petrous part of the temporal bone; it encloses the roots of the trigeminal nerve and the trigeminal ganglion. SYN: cavum trigeminale [TA] , trigeminal cavity&star, Meckel cavity, Meckel space.

SYN: cave. c. thoracis [TA] SYN: thoracic cage.

caveola, pl .caveolae (kav-e-o′la, -le)
A small pocket, vesicle, cave, or recess communicating with the outside of a cell and extending inward, indenting the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. Such caveolae may be pinched off to form free vesicles within the cytoplasm. They are considered to be sites of uptake of materials into the cell, expulsion of materials from the cell, or sites of addition or removal of cell (unit) membrane to or from the cell surface. [L.]

cavern (kav′ern)
SYN: cavernous space. caverns of corpora cavernosa SYN: cavernous spaces of corpora cavernosa, under space. caverns of corpus spongiosum SYN: cavernous spaces of corporus spongiosum, under space.

caverna, pl .cavernae (ka-ver′na, -ne)
SYN: cavernous space. [L. a grotto, fr. cavus, hollow] cavernae corporis spongiosi [TA] SYN: cavernous spaces of corporus spongiosum, under space. cavernae corporum cavernosorum [TA] SYN: cavernous spaces of corpora cavernosa, under space.

caverniloquy (kav-er-nil′o-kwe)
Low-pitched resonant pectoriloquy heard over a lung cavity. [L. caverna, cavern, + loquor, to talk]

cavernitis (kav-er-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the corpus cavernosum penis. SYN: cavernositis. fibrous c. c. occasionally associated with Peyronie disease.

cavernositis (kav′er-no-si′tis)
SYN: cavernitis.

cavernous (kav′er-nus)
Relating to a cavern or a cavity; containing many cavities.

Cavia (ka′ve-a)
A genus of the family Caviidae that includes the guinea pigs. [Mod. L., fr. native Indian] C. porcellus a rodent with a very short tail that is not visible externally; native to South America, where it is raised for food; used widely as a laboratory animal in medical research. SYN: guinea pig.

cavitary (kav′i-ta-re)
1. Relating to a cavity or having a cavity or cavities. 2. Denoting any animal parasite that has an enteric canal or body cavity and that lives within the host's body.

cavitas, pl .cavitates (kav′i-tas, -ta′tes)
SYN: cavity. [Mod. L.] c. abdominalis [TA] SYN: abdominal cavity. c. abdominis et pelvis [TA] SYN: abdominopelvic cavity. c. articularis [TA] SYN: articular cavity. c. conchae [TA] SYN: cavity of concha. c. coronae [TA] SYN: crown cavity. c. coronalis SYN: pulp cavity of crown. c. cranii [TA] SYN: cranial cavity. c. dentis [TA] SYN: pulp cavity. c. glenoidalis SYN: mandibular fossa. c. glenoidalis scapulae [TA] SYN: glenoid cavity of scapula. c. infraglottica [TA] SYN: infraglottic cavity. c. infraglotticum SYN: infraglottic cavity. c. laryngis [TA] SYN: laryngeal cavity. c. medullaris [TA] SYN: medullary cavity. c. nasi [TA] SYN: nasal cavity. c. oris [TA] SYN: oral cavity. c. oris propria [TA] SYN: oral cavity proper. c. pelvina pelvic cavity. c. pelvis [TA] SYN: pelvic cavity. c. pericardiaca [TA] SYN: pericardial cavity. c. peritonealis [TA] SYN: peritoneal cavity. c. pharyngis [TA] SYN: cavity of pharynx. c. pleuralis [TA] SYN: pleural cavity. c. pulparis pulp cavity. c. thoracis [TA] SYN: thoracic cavity. c. tympanica [TA] SYN: tympanic cavity. c. uteri [TA] SYN: uterine cavity.

cavitation (kav-i-ta′shun)
1. Formation of a cavity, as in the lung in tuberculosis or with development of a bacterial lung abscess. 2. The production of small vapor-containing bubbles or cavities in a liquid or tissue by ultrasound.

cavitis (ka-vi′tis)
SYN: celophlebitis.

cavity (kav′i-te)
1. A hollow space; hole. See cave, c., cavitas, cavernous space. 2. Lay term for the loss of tooth structure due to dental caries. SYN: cavum [TA] , cavitas. [L. cavus, hollow] abdominal c. [TA] the space bounded by the abdominal walls, the diaphragm, and the pelvis; it usually is arbitrarily separated from the pelvic c. by a plane across the superior aperture of the pelvis; however, it may include the pelvis with the abdomen (see abdominopelvic c.); within the cavitas lie the greater part of the organs of digestion, the spleen, the kidneys, and the suprarenal glands. SYN: cavitas abdominalis [TA] , cavum abdominis, enterocele (2) . abdominopelvic c. [TA] the combined and continuous abdominal and pelvic cavities. SEE ALSO: abdominal c.. SYN: cavitas abdominis et pelvis [TA] . amnionic c. the fluid-filled c. inside the amnion that contains the developing embryo. articular c. [TA] a joint c., the potential space bounded by the synovial membrane and articular cartilages of all synovial joints. Normally, the articular c. contains only sufficient synovial fluid to lubricate the internal surfaces. SYN: cavitas articularis [TA] , cavum articulare. axillary c. SYN: axilla. body c. the collective visceral c. of the trunk (thoracic c. plus abdominopelvic c.), bounded by the superior thoracic aperture above, the pelvic floor below, and the body walls (parietes) in between. SYN: celom (2) , celoma, coelom. buccal c. SYN: oral vestibule. cleavage c. SYN: blastocele. c. of concha [TA] the space within the lower, larger portion of the concha below the crus helicis; it forms the vestibule leading into the external acoustic meatus. SYN: cavitas conchae [TA] , cavum conchae&star. cavities of corpora cavernosa SYN: cavernous spaces of corpora cavernosa, under space. cavities of corpus spongiosum SYN: cavernous spaces of corporus spongiosum, under space. cotyloid c. SYN: acetabulum. cranial c. [TA] the space within the skull occupied by the brain, its coverings, and cerebrospinal fluid. SYN: cavitas cranii [TA] , intracranial c.. crown c. SYN: pulp c. of crown. SYN: cavitas coronae [TA] . ectoplacental c. SYN: epamniotic c.. ectotrophoblastic c. a developmental c. appearing between the trophoblast and the embryonic disk ectoderm in some mammals. epamniotic c. a developmental c. that exists in some mammals and is derived by division of the proamniotic space; it is further removed from the embryo than the amniotic c. in some mammals. SYN: ectoplacental c.. epidural c. SYN: epidural space. glenoid c. SYN: mandibular fossa. glenoid c. of scapula [TA] the hollow in the head of the scapula that receives the head of the humerus to make the shoulder joint; SYN: cavitas glenoidalis scapulae [TA] , glenoid fossa (1) . greater peritoneal c. SYN: peritoneal c.. head c. the cephalic region in the embryos of vertebrates containing the modified somites that give rise to the extrinsic eye muscles. idiopathic bone c. SYN: solitary bone cyst. inferior laryngeal c. SYN: infraglottic c.. infraglottic c. [TA] the part of the c. of the larynx immediately below the glottis. SYN: cavitas infraglottica [TA] , aditus glottidis inferior, cavitas infraglotticum, cavum infraglotticum, inferior laryngeal c., infraglottic space. intermediate laryngeal c. portion of the c. of the larynx between the vestibular and vocal folds, with which the ventricles communicate. SYN: aditus glottidis superior. intracranial c. SYN: cranial c.. laryngeal c. [TA] a c. that is continuous above with the pharynx at the level of the aryepiglottic folds and extends downward through the rima glottidis to the infraglottic space. SYN: cavitas laryngis [TA] , c. of larynx, cavum laryngis. c. of larynx SYN: laryngeal c.. lesser peritoneal c. SYN: omental bursa. Meckel c. SYN: trigeminal cave. medullary c. [TA] the marrow c. in the shaft of a long bone. SYN: cavitas medullaris [TA] , cavum medullare. c. of middle ear SYN: tympanic c.. nasal c. [TA] the c. on either side of the nasal septum, lined with ciliated respiratory mucosa, extending from the naris anteriorly to the choana posteriorly, and communicating with the paranasal sinuses through their orifices in the lateral wall, from which also project the three conchae; the cribriform plate, through which the olfactory nerves are transmitted, forms the roof; the floor is formed by the hard palate. SYN: cavitas nasi [TA] , cavum nasi. nephrotomic c. SYN: nephrocele (2) . oral c. [TA] the region consisting of the vestibulum oris, the narrow cleft between the lips and cheeks, and the teeth and gums, and the cavitas oris propria. SYN: cavitas oris [TA] , cavum oris, mouth (1) . oral c. proper [TA] the space between the dental arches, limited posteriorly by the isthmus of the fauces (palatoglossal arch). SYN: cavitas oris propria [TA] . orbital c. SYN: orbit. pelvic c. [TA] the space bounded at the sides by the bones of the pelvis, above by the superior aperture of the pelvis, and below by the pelvic diaphragm; it contains the pelvic viscera. SYN: cavitas pelvis [TA] , cavitas pelvina&star, cavum pelvis. pericardial c. [TA] 1. the potential space between the parietal and the visceral layers of the serous pericardium; 2. in the embryo, that part of the primary celom containing the heart; originally it is in open communication with the pericardioperitoneal cavities and indirectly, through them, with the peritoneal part of the celom. SYN: cavitas pericardiaca [TA] , cavum pericardii. peritoneal c. [TA] the interior of the peritoneal sac, normally only a potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum. SYN: cavitas peritonealis [TA] , cavum peritonei, greater peritoneal c.. perivisceral c. the space between the ectoderm and endoderm in the gastrula. SYN: primitive perivisceral c.. pharyngonasal c. SYN: nasopharynx. c. of pharynx [TA] it consists of a nasal part (nasopharynx) continuous anteriorly with the nasal c. and receiving the openings of the auditory tubes, an oral part (oropharynx) opening through the fauces into the oral c., and a laryngeal part (laryngopharynx) leading into the vestibule of the larynx and to the esophagus. SYN: cavitas pharyngis [TA] , cavum pharyngis. pleural c. [TA] the potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura. SYN: cavitas pleuralis [TA] , cavum pleurae, pleural space. pleuroperitoneal c. that part of the embryonic celom later partitioned to give rise to the pleural and peritoneal cavities. primitive perivisceral c. SYN: perivisceral c.. pulmonary c. one of the bilateral subdivisions of the thoracic c. lying on either side of the mediastinum, lined with parietal pleura and occupied by a lung; the space existing when a lung is removed. The term is not synonymous with pleural c., which is a space between the parietal and visceral pleura that is normally empty except for a fine layer of pleural fluid and that surrounds (but does not contain) the lung. pulp c. [TA] the central hollow of a tooth consisting of the crown c. and the root canal; it contains the fibrovascular dental pulp and is lined throughout by odontoblasts. SYN: cavitas dentis [TA] , cavitas pulparis&star, c. of tooth, cavum dentis. pulp c. of crown [TA] the space within the crown of a tooth continuous with the root canal. SYN: cavitas coronalis, cavum coronale, crown c.. Retzius c. SYN: retropubic space. segmentation c. SYN: blastocele. c. of septum pellucidum a slitlike, fluid-filled space of variable width between the left and right transparent septum, which occurs in fewer than 10% of human brains and may communicate with the third ventricle. SYN: cavum septum pellucidum [TA] , Duncan ventricle, fifth ventricle, pseudocele, pseudoventricle, sylvian ventricle, ventricle of Sylvius, ventriculus quintus, Vieussens ventricle, Wenzel ventricle. somite c. SYN: myocele (2) . splanchnic c. the celom or one of the body cavities derived from it. SYN: visceral c.. subarachnoid c. SYN: subarachnoid space. subdural c. SYN: subdural space. subgerminal c. SYN: primitive gut. superior laryngeal c. SYN: vestibule of larynx. thoracic c. [TA] the space within the thoracic walls, bounded below by the diaphragm and above by the neck. SYN: cavitas thoracis [TA] , cavum thoracis. c. of tooth SYN: pulp c.. trigeminal c. trigeminal cave. tympanic c. [TA] an air chamber in the temporal bone containing the ossicles; it is lined with mucous membrane and is continuous with the auditory tube anteriorly and the tympanic antrum and mastoid air cells posteriorly. SYN: cavitas tympanica [TA] , c. of middle ear, cavum tympani. uterine c., c. of uterus [TA] the space within the uterus extending from the cervical canal to the openings of the uterine tubes. SYN: cavitas uteri [TA] , cavum uteri. visceral c. SYN: splanchnic c..

cavogram (ka′vo-gram)
An angiogram of a vena cava. SYN: cavagram. [(vena) cava + G. gramma, a writing]


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