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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


cervix, gen. cervicis, pl .cervices (ser′viks, ser-vi′sis, -sez) [TA]
1. SYN: neck. 2. Any necklike structure. 3. SYN: c. of uterus. [L. neck] c. of the axon the constricted portion of the axon just before the myelin sheath begins. c. columnae posterioris a slight constriction of the posterior gray column of the spinal cord, seen on cross-section just behind the gray commissure. c. dentis [TA] SYN: neck of tooth. strawberry c. macular erythema of the uterine c., characteristic of vaginitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis. c. of tooth neck of tooth. c. uteri [TA] SYN: c. of uterus. c. of uterus [TA] the lower part of the uterus extending from the isthmus of the uterus into the vagina. It is divided into supravaginal and vaginal parts by its passage through the vaginal wall. SYN: c. uteri [TA] , c. (3) [TA] , neck of uterus, neck of womb. c. vesicae urinariae [TA] SYN: neck of (urinary) bladder.

ceryl (ser′il)
The hydrocarbon radical C26H53&cbond; of c. alcohol (hexacosanol). SYN: hexacosyl.

cesarean (se-za′re-an)
Denoting a c. section, which was included under lex cesarea, Roman law (715 B.C.); not because performed at the birth of Julius Caesar (100 B.C.).

cesium (Cs) (se′ze-um)
A metallic element, atomic no. 55, atomic wt. 132.90543; a member of the alkali metal group. 137Cs (half-life equal to 30.1 years) is used in the treatment of certain malignancies. [L. caesius, bluish gray]

Raymond, French neurologist, 1872–1934. See C.-Chenais syndrome.

Cestoda (ses-to′da)
A subclass of tapeworms (class Cestoidea), containing the typical members of this group, including the segmented tapeworms that parasitize humans and domestic animals. SYN: Eucestoda. [G. kestos, girdle]

Cestodaria (ses-to-da′re-a)
A subclass of the class Cestoidea, containing tapeworms that lack a scolex and are unsegmented (monozoic), in contrast to the typical tapeworms in the subclass Cestoda; larvae of c. (called lycophora) characteristically have 10 hooklets rather than six. C. are believed to be primitive tapeworms, parasitizing the intestine and celomic cavities of certain fish and a few reptiles.

cestode, cestoid (ses′tod, -toyd)
Common name for tapeworms of the class Cestoidea or its subclasses, Cestoda and Cestodaria.

cestodiasis (ses-to-di′a-sis)
Disease caused by infection with a cestode.

Cestoidea (ses-toy′de-a)
The tapeworms, a class of platyhelminth flatworms characterized by lack of an alimentary canal and, in typical forms (subclass Cestoda), by a segmented body with a scolex or holdfast organ at one end; adult worms are vertebrate parasites, usually found in the small intestine. [G. kestos, girdle, + eidos, form]

cetaceum (se-ta′she-um)
SYN: spermaceti. [G. ketos, a whale]

cetalkonium chloride (set′al-ko′ne-um)
An antibacterial agent.

cethexonium bromide (set-heks-o′ne-um)
An antiseptic.

cetostearyl alcohol (se-to-ste′a-ril)
A component of the hydrophilic ointment ingredient known as emulsifying wax; a mixture of solid aliphatic alcohols consisting chiefly of stearyl and cetyl alcohols.

cetraria (se-tra′re-a)
The dried plant, C. islandica (family Parmeliaceae), a lichen, not a moss, used as a demulcent and as a folk remedy for bronchitis. SYN: Iceland moss. [L. caetra, a short Spanish shield (from shape of the apothecia)]

cetrimonium bromide (se-tri-mo′ne-um)
An antiseptic.

cetyl (se′til)
The univalent radical C16H33&cbond; of c. alcohol. c. alcohol the 16-carbon alcohol corresponding to palmitic acid, so called because it is isolated from among the hydrolysis products of spermaceti; it is used as an emulsifying aid and in the preparation of “washable” (oil in water emulsions) ointment bases. SYN: 1-hexadecanol, palmityl alcohol. c. palmitate a wax; the chief constituent of spermaceti.

cetylpyridinium chloride (se′til-pi-ri-din′e-um)
The monohydrate of the quaternary salt of pyridine and cetyl chloride; a cationic detergent with antiseptic action against nonsporulating bacteria.

cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (se′til-tri-me′thil-a-mo′ne-um)
A mixture of dodecyl-, tetradecyl-, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromides; an odorless surface-active agent, readily soluble in water; a disinfectant with a strong bacteriostatic action, used for the sterilization of instruments and utensils.

cevadilla (se-va-dil′a)
SYN: sabadilla. [Sp. dim. of cebada, barley]

cevadine (sev′a-den)
An alkaloid occurring in the seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale (Sabadilla officinarum), family Liliaceae; highly irritating to skin and mucous membranes. SEE ALSO: veratrine.

cevitamic acid (sev-i-tam′ik)
SYN: ascorbic acid.

Abbreviation for citrovorum factor; coupling factor.

Symbol for californium.

Abbreviation for critical fusion frequency. See critical flicker fusion frequency.

Abbreviation for chorionic gonadotropin; phosgene.

Abbreviation for catabolite gene activator.

Abbreviation for cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate.

Abbreviation for chorionic “growth hormone-prolactin”.

Abbreviation for calcitonin gene-related peptide.

CGS, cgs
Abbreviation for centimeter-gram-second. See centimeter-gram-second system, centimeter-gram-second unit.

Abbreviation for crown-heel length.

Charles G., U.S. neurologist, 1861–1936. See C. reflex, C. sign.

James R., U.S. gynecologist, 1844–1905. See C. sign.

chaeta (ke′ta)
SYN: seta. [Mod. L. fr. G. chaite, stiff hair]

chafe (chaf)
To cause irritation of the skin by friction. [Fr. chauffer, to heat, fr. L. calefacio, to make warm]

Carlos, Brazilian physician, 1879–1934. See C. disease, C.-Cruz disease.

chagoma (sha-go′ma)
Small granuloma in the skin caused by early multiplication of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease).

chain (chan)
1. In chemistry, a series of atoms held together by one or more covalent bonds. 2. In bacteriology, a linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and remain attached to each other. 3. A series of reactions. 4. In anatomy, a linked series of structures, e.g., ossicular c., c. ganglia, under ganglion. SEE ALSO: sympathetic trunk. [L. catena] A c. 1. the shorter polypeptide component of insulin containing 21 amino acyl residues, beginning with a glycyl residue (NH2-terminus); insulin is formed by the linkage of an A c. to a B c. by two disulfide bonds; the amino-acid composition of the A c. is a function of species; 2. in general, one of the polypeptides in a multiprotein complex. B c. 1. the longer polypeptide component of insulin containing 30 amino acyl residues, beginning with a phenylalanyl residue (NH2-terminus); insulin is formed by the linkage of a B c. to an A c. by two disulfide bonds; the amino acid composition of the B c. is a function of species; 2. the light c. of an immunoglobulin. behavior c. related behaviors in a series in which each response serves as a stimulus for the next response. C c. SYN: C-peptide. cold c. a system of protection against high environmental temperatures for heat-labile vaccines, sera, and other biological preparations. electron-transport c. SYN: respiratory c.. ganglionic c. SYN: sympathetic trunk. heavy c. a polypeptide c. of high molecular weight (about 400–500 amino acyl residues), as the γ, α, μ, δ, or ε chains in immunoglobulin, determining the immunoglobulin class and subclass. This c. also determines if complement can be bound and if the c. can pass through the placenta. There are two identical chains in each immunoglobulin. SYN: H c.. J c. a glycopeptide, cysteine-rich polypeptide that is bonded to polymeric IgA and IgM; its function is to ensure correct polymerization of the subunits of IgA and IgM and to be secreted externally. [joining c.] L c. SYN: light c.. light c. a polypeptide c. of low molecular weight (about 200 amino acyl residues), as the κ or λ chains in immunoglobulin. There are two identical light chains in each immunoglobulin monomer. SYN: L c.. long c. in bacteriology, a continuous line of more than eight cells. ossicular c. SYN: auditory ossicles, under ossicle. respiratory c. a sequence of energy-liberating oxidation-reduction reactions whereby electrons are accepted from reduced compounds and eventually transferred to oxygen with the formation of water. SYN: cytochrome system, electron-transport c., electron-transport system. short c. in bacteriology, a string of two to eight cells. side c. 1. a c. of noncyclic atoms linked to a benzene ring, or to any cyclic c. compound; 2. the atoms of an α-amino acid other than the α-carboxyl group, the α-amino group, the α-carbon, and the hydrogen attached to the α-carbon.

chaining (chan′ing)
Learning related behaviors in a series in which each response serves as a stimulus for the next response.

chalasia, chalasis (ka-la′ze-a, -la′sis)
Inhibition and relaxation of any previously sustained contraction of muscle, usually of a synergic group of muscles. [G. chalao, to loosen]

chalaza (ka-la′za)
1. SYN: chalazion. 2. Suspensory ligament of the yolk in a bird's egg. [G. hail; a small tubercle, a sty (Galen)]

chalazion, pl .chalazia (ka-la′ze-on, -ze-a)
A chronic inflammatory granuloma of a meibomian gland. SYN: chalaza (1) , meibomian cyst, tarsal cyst. [G. dim. of chalaza, a sty] acute c. SYN: hordeolum internum. collar-stud c. a c. that extends through the tarsal plate anteriorly (c. externum) and toward the conjunctiva.

chalcone (kal′kon)
The parent compound of a series of plant pigments. All are flavonoids and typically are yellow to orange in color. SYN: benzalacetophenone.

chalcosis (kal-ko′sis)
Chronic copper poisoning. SYN: chalkitis. [G. chalkos, copper, brass] c. lentis a cataract caused by excessive intraocular copper. SYN: copper cataract, sunflower cataract.

chalicosis (kal-i-ko′sis)
Pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of dust incident to the occupation of stone cutting. SYN: flint disease. [G. chalix, gravel]

chalk (chawk)
SYN: calcium carbonate. [L. calx] French c. SYN: talc. prepared c. purified native calcium carbonate, usually molded into cones; used as a mild astringent and antacid.

chalkitis (kal-ki′tis)
SYN: chalcosis. [G. chalkos, copper, brass]

chalone (ka′lon)
Originally, a hormone ( e.g., enterogastrone) that inhibits rather than stimulates; now, any one of a number of mitotic inhibitors (often glycoproteins) elaborated by a tissue and active only on that type of tissue, regardless of species; thus, a reversible tissue-specific mitotic inhibitor. [G. + chalao, to relax, + -one]

chalybeate (kal-ib′e-at)
Obsolete term for impregnated with or containing iron salts and for a therapeutic agent containing iron. [G. chalyps (chalyb-), steel]

chamber (cham′ber) [TA]
A compartment or enclosed space. SEE ALSO: camera. [L. camera] altitude c. a decompression c. for simulating a high altitude environment, particularly its low barometric pressure. SYN: high altitude c.. anechoic c. a room designed to absorb all sound so as to eliminate all echoes; used for research on hearing and sensory deprivation. anterior c. of eyeball [TA] the space between the cornea anteriorly and the iris/pupil posteriorly, filled with a watery fluid (aqueous humor) and communicating through the pupil with the posterior c.. SYN: camera anterior bulbi [TA] , camera (1) [TA] , camera oculi anterior, camera oculi major. aqueous chambers the combined anterior and posterior chambers of the eye containing the aqueous humor. See anterior c. of eyeball, posterior c. of eyeball. SEE ALSO: anterior segment. counting c. a device for counting microscopic objects suspended in fluid, as cells and platelets in dilute whole blood or bacteria in broth culture. It consists of a microscope slide containing a shallow cavity of uniform depth whose floor is ruled with a grid and which, when closed with a cover glass, holds a precise volume of fluid. A calculation based on the number of objects counted within the grid lines, the dilution of the fluid, and the volume of the counting c. yields an estimate of the concentration of objects in the fluid before dilution. SEE ALSO: hemocytometer. decompression c. a c. for exposing organisms to pressures below that of the atmosphere. chambers of eyeball [TA] the cavities within the eyeball: anterior and posterior chambers, filled with aqueous, and the postremal (vitreous) c., occupied by the vitreous. SEE ALSO: anterior c. of eyeball, posterior c. of eyeball, postremal c. of eyeball. SYN: camerae bulbi [TA] . high altitude c. SYN: altitude c.. hyperbaric c. a c. providing pressures greater than atmospheric, commonly used to treat decompression sickness and to provide hyperbaric oxygenation. ionization c. a c. for detecting ionization of the enclosed gas; used for determining intensity of ionizing radiation. SEE ALSO: Geiger-Müller counter. posterior c. of eyeball the ringlike space, filled with aqueous humor, between the iris/pupil anteriorly and the lens and ciliary body posteriorly. SYN: camera posterior bulbi [TA] , camera oculi minor, camera oculi posterior. postremal c. of eyeball [TA] the large space between the lens and the retina; it is filled with the vitreous body. SYN: camera postrema [TA] , camera vitrea bulbi&star, camera vitrea&star, vitreous c.&star, posterior segment of eyeball, vitreous camera, vitreous c. of eye. pulp c. that portion of the pulp cavity which is contained in the crown or body of the tooth. relief c. a recess in the impression surface of a denture to reduce or eliminate pressure from that specific area of the mouth. Sandison-Clark c. a c. that can be fitted over a hole punched in a rabbit's ear, so that tissue will grow to fill the defect between two transparent plates; if the distance between the plates is small, the living tissue can be studied microscopically. sinuatrial c. the common c. formed by the single embryonic atrium and the right and left horns of the sinus venosus. vitreous c. postremal c. of eyeball. vitreous c. of eye SYN: postremal c. of eyeball. Zappert counting c. a special, standardized glass slide used for counting cells (especially erythrocytes and leukocytes) and other particulate material in a measured volume of fluid; the central portion is precisely ground in such a manner that the uniformly flat surface is exactly 0.1 mm lower than that of two parallel ridges on which a special, uniformly flat coverslip may be placed; accurately etched lines on the flat central portion form the boundaries of groups of squares of known areas, thereby providing the basis for determining the volume of fluid in which the cells are counted. Glass slides of this type are frequently known as hemocytometers.

W. Edward, U.S. radiologist, 1891–1947. See C. line.

Peter, English obstetrician, 1560–1631. See C. forceps.

chamecephalic (kam-e-se-fal′ik)
Having a flat head; denoting a skull with a vertical index of 70 or less; similar to tapinocephalic. SYN: chamecephalous. [G. chamai, on the ground (low, stunted), + kephale, head]

chamecephalous (kam-e-sef′a-lus)
SYN: chamecephalic.

chameprosopic (kam′e-pro-sop′ik)
Having a broad face. [G. chamai (adv.), on the ground (low, spread out), + prosopikos, facial]

chamfer (sham′fer)
A marginal finish on an extracoronal cavity preparation of a tooth which describes a curve from an axial wall to the cavosurface. [fr. O.Fr. chanfrein(t), beveled edge]

chamomile (kam′o-mil)
The flowering heads of Anthemis nobilis (family Compositae); a stomachic. SYN: camomile. [G. chamaimelon, c., fr. chamai, on the ground, + melon, apple]

Christian, French physician, *1885. See C. fixative.

I., 20th century British hematologist. See Dorfman-C. syndrome.

G.Q., 20th century British radiologist. See C. fracture.

chancre (shan′ker)
The primary lesion of syphilis, which begins at the site of cutaneous or mucosal infection after an interval of 10–30 days as a papule or area of infiltration, of dull red color, hard, and insensitive; the center usually becomes eroded or breaks down into an ulcer that heals slowly after 4–6 weeks. Finding Treponema pallidum on dark-field examination is diagnostic, except in oral ulcers, in which T. microdentium is normally present. SYN: hard c., hard sore, hard ulcer, syphilitic ulcer (1) . [Fr. indirectly from L. cancer] hard c. SYN: c.. mixed c. a sore resulting from simultaneous inoculation of a site with syphilis and chancroid. monorecidive c. a c. that recurs at the site of a previously healed lesion. c. redux a second c. occurring in a syphilitic subject, possibly an allergic reaction without the presence of the specific spirochete. soft c. SYN: chancroid. sporotrichositic c. the initial lesion at the site of skin infection in sporotrichosis. tularemic c. the primary lesion, usually of finger, thumb, or hand, in tularemia.

chancriform (shang′kri-form)
Resembling chancre.


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