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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


cheilotomy (ki-lot′o-me)
Incision into the lip. [cheilo- + G. tome, incision]

See cheiro-.

cheiralgia (kir-al′je-a, -jya)
Obsolete term for pain and paresthesia in the hand. c. paresthetica compression neuropathy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve, marked by pain and paresthesia over the course of the nerve.

cheirarthritis (ki′rar-thri′tis)
Obsolete term for inflammation of the joints of the hand. SYN: chirarthritis. [cheir- + arthritis]

cheiro-, cheir-
Hand. SEE ALSO: chiro-. [G. cheir, a hand]

cheirognostic (ki′rog-nos′tik)
Able to distinguish between right and left, as of the hands or of which side of the body is touched. SYN: chirognostic. [cheiro- + G. gnostikos, perceptive]

cheirokinesthesia (ki′ro-kin-es-the′ze-a)
The subjective sensation of movement of the hands. SYN: chirokinesthesia. [cheiro- + G. kinesis, movement, + aisthesis, sensation]

cheirokinesthetic (ki′ro-kin-es-thet′ik)
Relating to cheirokinesthesia.

cheirology, chirology (ki-rol′o-je)
SYN: dactylology. [cheiro- + G. logos, word]

cheiromegaly, chiromegaly (ki′ro-meg′a-le)
SYN: macrocheiria. [cheiro- + G. megas, large]

cheiropodalgia (ki′ro-po-dal′je-a)
Rarely used term for pain in the hands and in the feet. SYN: chiropodalgia. [cheiro- + G. pous, foot, + algos, pain]

cheiropompholyx (ki-ro-pom′fo-liks)
SYN: dyshidrosis. [cheiro- + G. pompholyx, a bubble, fr. pomphos, a blister]

cheirospasm (ki′ro-spazm)
Rarely used term for spasm of the muscles of the hand, as in writers' cramp. SYN: chirospasm. [cheiro- + G. spasmos, spasm]

chelate (ke′lat)
1. To effect chelation. 2. Pertaining to chelation. 3. A complex formed through chelation.

chelation (ke-la′shun)
Complex formation involving a metal ion and two or more polar groupings of a single molecule; thus, in heme, the Fe2+ ion is chelated by the porphyrin ring. C. can be used to remove an ion from participation in biological reactions, as in the c. of Ca2+ of blood by EDTA, which thus acts as an anticoagulant. [G. chele, claw]

chelicera, pl .chelicerae (ke-lis′i-ra, -i-re)
One of the two anterior appendages of arachnids; in ticks and parasitic mites, the chelicerae are piercing and cutting structures, and constitute important feeding organs. [G. chele, claw, + keras, horn]

chelidon (kel′e-don)
SYN: cubital fossa. [G. c., a swallow, because of fancied resemblance to the shape of a swallow's tail]

cheloid (ke′loyd)
SYN: keloid.

See chemo-.

chemexfoliation (kem′eks-fo-le-a′shun)
A chemosurgical technique designed to remove acne scars or treat chronic skin changes caused by exposure to sunlight. SYN: chemical peeling.

chemiatry (kem′i-a-tre)
Obsolete term for iatrochemistry.

chemical (kem′i-kal)
Relating to chemistry.

chemicocautery (kem′i-ko-kaw′ter-e)
SYN: chemocautery.

chemiluminescence (kem′e-loo-min-es′ens)
Light produced by chemical action usually at, or below, room temperature. SYN: chemoluminescence.

chemiotaxis (kem′e-o-taks′is)
SYN: chemotaxis.

chemise (shem-ez′)
A square of gauze fastened to a catheter passed through its center; used to retain a tampon packed around the catheter inserted into a wound, such as that resulting from a perineal resection. [Fr. shirt]

chemist (kem′ist)
1. A specialist or expert in chemistry. 2. Pharmacist (British).

chemistry (kem′is-tre)
1. The science concerned with the atomic composition of substances, the elements, and their interreactions, as well as the formation, decomposition, and properties of molecules. 2. The chemical properties of a substance. 3. Chemical processes. [G. chemeia, alchemy] analytic c. the application of c. to the determination and detection of composition and identification of specific substances. applied c. the application of the theories and principles of c. to practical purposes. biologic c. SYN: biochemistry. clinical c. 1. the c. of human health and disease; 2. c. in connection with the management of patients, as in a hospital laboratory. ecologic c. 1. c. that concentrates on the effects of human-made chemicals on the environment as well as the development of agents that are not harmful to the environment; 2. the study of the molecular interactions between species and between species and the environment. epithermal c. so-called “hot atom” c.; the science concerned with the chemical reactions of recoil atoms and free radicals produced in low energy nuclear processes. inorganic c. the science concerned with compounds not involving carbon-containing molecules. macromolecular c. the c. of macromolecules ( e.g., proteins, nucleic acids) and polymers (nylon, polyethylene, etc). medicinal c. SYN: pharmaceutical c.. nuclear c. the science concerned with the c. of nuclear reactions and processes. organic c. that branch of c. concerned with covalently linked atoms, centering around carbon compounds of this type; originally, and still including, the c. of natural products. pharmaceutical c. medicinal c. in its application to the analysis, development, preparation, and the manufacture of drugs. SYN: medicinal c., pharmacochemistry. physiologic c. SYN: biochemistry. radiopharmaceutical c. the science concerned with the labeling of pharmaceuticals with radionuclides. synthetic c. the formation or building up of complex compounds by uniting the more simple ones.

chemo-, chem-
Chemistry. [G. chemeia, alchemy]

chemoattractants (kem′a-trak′tinz)
Chemical substances that influence the migration of cells. [chem- + attract + -i]

chemoautotroph (kem′o-aw′to-trof, ke′mo)
An organism that depends on chemicals for its energy and principally on carbon dioxide for its carbon. SYN: chemolithotroph. [chemo- + G. autos, self, + trophikos, nourishing]

chemoautotrophic (kem′o-aw-to-trof′ik, ke′mo-)
Pertaining to a chemoautotroph. SYN: chemolithotrophic.

chemobiodynamics (kem′o-bi-o-di-nam′iks, ke′mo-)
Study devoted to elucidation of correlations between the chemical constitution of various materials and their ability to modify the function and morphology of biological systems. [chemo- + G. bios, life, + dynamis, power]

chemocautery (kem′o-kaw-ter-e, ke′mo-)
Any substance that destroys tissue upon application. SYN: chemical cautery, chemicocautery.

chemoceptor (ke′mo-sep-tor)
SYN: chemoreceptor.

chemodectoma (kem′o-dek-to′ma, ke′mo-)
Aortic body, carotid body, chemoreceptor, or glomus jugulare tumor; nonchromaffin paraganglioma; receptoma; a relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the carotid body, glomus jugulare, and aortic bodies; consisting histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveoluslike pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. Cf.:paraganglioma. SYN: aortic body tumor, carotid body tumor, nonchromaffin paraganglioma. [chemo- + G. dektes, receiver, fr. dechomai, to receive, + -oma, tumor]

chemodectomatosis (kem′o-dek-to-ma-to′sis, ke′mo-)
Multiple tumors of perivascular tissue of carotid body or presumed chemoreceptor type, which have been reported in the lungs as minute neoplasms.

chemodifferentiation (kem′o-dif-er-en-she-a′shun, ke′mo-)
Differentiation of the cellular chemical constituents in the embryo prior to cytodifferentiation; sometimes recognizable histochemically. SYN: invisible differentiation.

chemoheterotroph (kem′o-het′er-o-trof, ke′mo-)
SYN: chemoorganotroph. [chem- + G. heteros, other, + trophe, nourishment]

chemoheterotrophic (kem′o-het-er-o-trof′ik, ke′mo-)
SYN: chemoorganotrophic.

chemoimmunology (kem′o-im-u-nol′o-je, ke′mo-)
An obsolete term for immunochemistry.

chemokines (ke′mo-kinz)
Several groups composed of usually 8–10 kD polypeptide cytokines that are chemokinetic and chemotactic stimulating leukocyte movement and attraction. SYN: intercrines. [chemo- + G. kineo, to set in motion]

chemokinesis (kem′o-ki-ne′sis, ke′mo-)
Stimulation of an organism by a chemical. [chemo- + G. kinesis, movement]

chemokinetic (kem′-o-ki-net′ik, ke′mo-)
Referring to chemokinesis.

chemolithotroph (kem′o-lith′o-trof, ke′mo-)
SYN: chemoautotroph.

chemolithotrophic (kem′o-lith-o-trof′ik, ke′mo-)
SYN: chemoautotrophic.

chemolithotrophy (kem′o-lith′o-trof-e)
The utilization of inorganic compounds or ions to obtain reducing equivalents and energy. [chemo- + G. lithos, stone, mineral, + trophe, nourishment]

chemoluminescence (kem′o-loo-min-es′ens, ke′mo-)
SYN: chemiluminescence.

chemolysis (kem-ol′i-sis)
Chemical decomposition. [chemo- + G. lysis, dissolution]

chemonucleolysis (kem′o-noo-kle-ol′i-sis, ke′mo-)
Injection of chymopapain into the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disk. A therapeutic option for the treatment of a herniated nucleus pulposis, e.g., “slipped disk.”

chemoorganotroph (kem′o-or′ga-no-trof, ke′mo-)
An organism that depends on organic chemicals for its energy and carbon. SYN: chemoheterotroph. [chemo- + G. organon, organ, + trophe, nourishment]

chemoorganotrophic (kem′o-or-ga-no-trof′ik, ke′mo-)
Pertaining to a chemoorganotroph. SYN: chemoheterotrophic.

chemopallidectomy (kem′o-pal-i-dek′to-me, ke′mo-)
Destruction of the globus pallidus by injection of a chemical agent. SYN: chemopallidotomy. [chemo- + globus pallidus + G. ektome, excision]

chemopallidothalamectomy (kem′o-pal′i-do-thal-a-mek′to-me, ke′mo-)
Destruction of portions of the globus pallidus and thalamus by injection of a chemical substance. [chemo- + globus pallidus + thalamus + G. ektome, excision]

chemopallidotomy (kem′o-pal-i-dot′o-me, ke′mo-)
SYN: chemopallidectomy. [chemo- + globus pallidus + G. tome, incision]

The use of drugs or other agents to inhibit the development or progression of malignant changes in cells.

chemoprophylaxis (kem′o-pro′fi-lak′sis, ke′mo-)
Prevention of disease by the use of chemicals or drugs.

chemoreception (kem-o-re-sep′shun)
The ability to perceive chemicals in the environment that are odorants or tastants. SYN: chemosensation.

chemoreceptive (ke-mo-re-sep′tiv)
Relating to chemoreception.

chemoreceptor (ke′mo-re-sep′tor)
Any cell that is activated by a change in its chemical milieu and results in a nerve impulse. Such cells can be either 1) “transducer” cells innervated by sensory nerve fibers ( e.g., the gustatory receptor cells of the taste buds; cells in the carotid body sensitive to changes in the oxygen and carbon dioxide content of the blood); or 2) nerve cells proper, such as the olfactory receptor cells of the olfactory mucosa, and certain cells in the brainstem that are sensitive to changes in the composition of the blood or cerebrospinal fluid. SYN: chemoceptor. medullary c. the chemoreceptors in or near the ventrolateral surface of the medulla that are stimulated by local acidity. peripheral c. the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies that are stimulated by chemical changes in the composition of the blood such as hypoxia.

chemoreflex (kem-o-re′fleks, ke-mo-)
A reflex initiated by the stimulation of chemoreceptors, e.g., of a carotid body.

chemoresistance (kem′o-re-zis′tans, ke′mo-)
The resistance of bacteria or malignant cells to the inhibiting action of certain chemical substances used in treatment.

chemoresponse (ke-mo-re-sponz′)
A reaction to chemical stimulation.

chemosensation (ke-mo-sen-ssa′shun)
SYN: chemoreception.

chemosensitive (kem-o-sen′si-tiv, ke-mo-)
Capable of perceiving changes in the chemical composition of the environment, e.g., changes in the oxygen and carbon dioxide content of the blood.

chemoserotherapy (kem′o-se-r′o-thar-a-pe, ke′mo-)
An obsolete treatment of disease with a combination of drugs and serum.

chemosis (ke-mo′sis)
Edema of the bulbar conjunctiva, forming a swelling around the cornea. [G. cheme, a yawning, the cockle (from its gaping shell)]

chemosmosis (kem-os-mo′sis)
Chemical reaction between substances initially separated by a membrane. [chem- + G. osmos, a thrusting, an impulsion]

chemostat (kem′o-stat)
A fermenter for microbial growth in which the ratio of growth to synthesis of secondary products is controlled by the rate at which new medium is added to the culture.

chemosurgery (kem′o-ser-jer-e, ke′mo-)
Excision of diseased tissue after it has been fixed in situ by chemical means. Mohs c. a technique for removal of skin tumors with a minimum of normal tissue, by prior necrosis with zinc chloride paste, mapping of the tumor site, and excision and microscopic examination of frozen section of thin horizontal layers of tissue, until all of the tumor is removed. More recently, the preliminary step of chemical necrosis has been omitted. SYN: microscopically controlled surgery, Mohs micrographic surgery, Mohs surgery.


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